There are several distinct behavior associated with a group

Group
Name
Institution

Part 1
There are several distinct behavior associated with a group. Some difficult attributes of the members have an effect of negatively affecting the productivity. The level of success attributed to the group is solely dependent on tolerance of every person and incorporating varied ideas (Bens, 2012). Ultimately, understanding the role of each member is important in achieving the objective of the entire group. Identifying disruptions among members is a good strategy which can be employed in eliminating possible obstacles to growth. One of the issue that arise in a group situation is monopolizing. This is where an individual dominate contributions. It can results to resentment from other members if not handled in the right manner. Contributions from one person impedes variety of ideas (Bens, 2012). The facilitator is expected to acknowledge opinion of every member and divert attention to others. Additionally, unresponsive members prevent moving on with discussion in the panel. Irresponsibility comes in form of defiance and lack of interest in group work (Brunner et al., 2006). Some members would prefer to listen rather than participate vocally. Although failure to contribute could be regarded as bad behavior, part of the people are extrovert. They need encouragement to motivate them and embrace their presence. Overtime, they might speak less but continually improve with time. Withal, conflict is also witnessed where proper control is not enacted. It becomes destructive when attacks are directed to a particular person. However, conflict is constructive only when individuals are disagreeing on certain points.
Part 2
Controlling a group is governed by traits possessed by the facilitator. The trend observed is linearly related to the leader, who has all powers to instruct. The following traits which I have emulated are core. One, communication skills is pertinent. This is important in passing ideas from one person to the other. A facilitator who lacks good oral skills get subdued by rowdy members. Furthermore, listening skills are also key. A group is basically a common point where ideas are consolidated to solve one major task (Sistare et al., 2001). The leader should be able to listen and critique the ideas presented by various members. Sensitivity is also crucial when handling human beings. People respond differently to issues and hence the importance of understanding their weaknesses. Working with a co-facilitator is a good concept. As it was alluded earlier, gathering of people with diverse behavior could be difficult to handle (Bens, 2012). Handling these people is tiresome and a helper is needed to manage them. Moreover, two people in control are able to divide tasks depending with expertize. The major weakness of two leaders is conflict of interest. In a situation where every facilitator want to be heard and retain command, disorderly arises preventing achievement of the major goal.
Part 3
The group will foresee incorporation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the management system of the company. Ensuring right ideas are integrated, open type of group will be used. This is whereby the top management and other employee’s opinions are attracted. The leader in this case will act as a coordinator, directing all activities. The facilitator is also entrusted with laying strategies of accomplishing the work through consulting the experts in the group. It is important to note that for a group to succeed, inclusion of all levels of employees is core. This would eliminate seclusion and every member in the organization feel valued. In order to enhance effectiveness, membership of ten people meeting for a period of one months is good enough. Allowing participation in the group would be pegged to education qualification of an individual and a good working track record. Additionally, the rule of the group will focus on quality services delivery.

References
Bens, I. (2012). Facilitating with Ease! Core Skills for Facilitators, Team Leaders and Members, Managers, Consultants, and Trainers. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Dwortz, Madeleine F., et al. “Neural systems that facilitate the representation of social rank.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 377.1845 (2022): 20200444.
Brunner, L. D., Nutkevitch, A., & Sher, M. (2006). Group relations conferences: Reviewing and exploring theory, design, role-taking and application. London: Karnac.
Sistare, C. T., May, L., & Francis, L. (2001). Groups and group rights. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas.

Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident

Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident

Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course
Professor’s Name
Date

Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident
Summarize the Henry Pratt Company workplace violence incident
The Henry Pratt Company violence incident involves an employees who shot dead five employees after he was fired. Investigation reports indicate that the employee had threatened to kill people if he got fired. According to the investigation report, he threatened that ‘I’m going to kill every mother f***** in here.’ The employee who heard the threat did not report the incident since he thought Martin was used to making ‘off the wall’ statements (Abe, 2020). The employee brought the weapon to the workplace on the day of the incidence. He shot dead five employees and engaged the police in gunfire when the security officers arrived. The reports indicate that Martin also died in the shootout.
Identify red flags present prior to the shooting
One of the red flags in the incident is that Martin had threatened to kill fellow employees if he got fired. He had received information that he would soon be fired by the company. According to the reports, the employee who heard the threat did not report to the management. The employee thought Martin was not serious of his threats since he was always making other statements that were ‘off the wall.’ The red flag involves the fury of the employee when he received information that he would be fired (Abe, 2020). Another red flag is that the employee had a gun in his car and brought it to the workplace. The surveillance systems did not record him bringing the firearm and the investigators believe he brought it to the workplace when he reported in the morning. Lack of sufficient reporting systems of such threats was a major cause of the incident.
Preventing the Incident
The workplace violence could have been prevented if the red flags had been acted upon. If the employee had reported the threats by Martin, he would have saved the situation. The report would have prevented the incident of shooting (Hemati-Esmaeili et al., 2018). For instance, if the management received the information about the threats, they could have interrogated Martin. The intervention of the police officers would have prevented Martin from bringing the firearm to the workplace (Abe, 2020). The shooting could have been prevented if the company carried out the firing process in a professional manner. Counseling is one of the steps in the firing process since it helps an employee to receive the news and manage the emotions.
Workplace violence prevention program
A workplace violence prevention program is effective in addressing the issues that affect employee safety and welfare. The prevention program would have helped the employees to identify the red flags. For instance, the program would encourage the employees to always report incidences. The reporting system would help the employees to remain safe. Another issue in the program is the vigilance of the management (Arbury et al., 2017). For instance, it is vital to always review the behavior of the employee.
Incidences of shooting have occurred in the past when employees were fired from their workplace. The incidences occur due to the frustrations of the employees. It is vital for the management to provide counseling to the employees during exit. Firing employees triggers emotional disturbance or hopelessness which can affect the behavior of employees (Magnavita et al., 2020). It is vital to provide prior counseling before breaking the news that an employee will be fired.
Important prevention elements in the workplace violence protection program
The element that should be considered in the workplace violence protection program is counseling. Counseling is vital to ensure employees can express their emotions freely. Companies should consider to educate their employees about ways to cope with negative emotions (Magnavita et al., 2020). For instance, employers should prepare employees about being fired. Some companies consider giving a lump sum amount to their employees. The money will help the employees to pay their bills before they can secure another job. The amount will help families will families to continue taking care of them despite being jobless.
The workplace violence protection program should involve engaging the employees by socializing with them to get accurate information about their behavior. Free interaction with the employees will help the management to get the information involving the expectations and frustrations of the employees. Another element is accurate and official communication of the decisions of the employees (Gooch, 2018). The decisions of the employees should be communicated officially in a professional manner. The management should attempt to find out the reaction of an employee upon receiving information that they will be fired.
Topics to address in employee training on workplace violence
The topics to address in the employee training on the workplace violence involves how to report incidences of violence or red flags. The reporting procedures should help the management to always receive timely information. Another topic is how to deal with stress or depression. The counseling sessions should help the employees to cope with stressful events (Gooch, 2018). Other topics include transition from one job to another and how to prepare for the future such as saving and advancing career skills.

References
Abe, K. (2020). Mass Shootings in the US—Why Are they Happening so Often. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 8(2), 70-79.
Arbury, S., Zankowski, D., Lipscomb, J., & Hodgson, M. (2017). Workplace violence training programs for health care workers: an analysis of program elements. Workplace health & safety, 65(6), 266-272.
Gooch, P. (2018). Hospital workplace violence prevention in California: new regulations. Workplace health & safety, 66(3), 115-119.
Hemati-Esmaeili, M., Heshmati-Nabavi, F., Pouresmail, Z., Mazlom, S., & Reihani, H. (2018). Educational and managerial policy making to reduce workplace violence against nurses: an action research study. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 23(6), 478.
Magnavita, N., Heponiemi, T., & Chirico, F. (2020). Workplace Violence Is Associated With Impaired Work Functioning in Nurses: An Italian Cross‐Sectional Study. Journal of nursing scholarship, 52(3), 281-291.

Positive Social Change

Assignment 3: Positive Social Change
To prepare
• Review the Week 6 Required Reading and Media Resources.
• Read the Week 6 Assignment Rubric, provided in the Course Information area.
• Go to the Writing Resources tab to download the SON Writing Template to format your paper. There you will also find APA-related resources.
• Find at least one current Walden Library article to support your scholarly opinions in the paper.
Assignment: 2- page Paper
• In this Assignment, you will discuss how furthering your nursing education, with a focus on social change, will enhance your current practice and supports your future career planning. Nursing’s Social Contract entails expectations between the nursing profession and society to elevate the health of society.
• Choose 2 of Nursing’s Social Contract elements and discuss how they are foundational to your nursing practice. Elements include caring service; privacy of the patient; knowledge, skill, and competence; hazardous service; responsibility and accountability; progress and development; ethical practice; collaboration; promotion of the health of the public; etcetera.
• Address your future career planning. How do you intend to make a difference by confronting a current challenge in health care where you live, in your profession, or on a global scale?
• Support your responses with at least two scholarly sources from the Learning Resources and/or outside sources. Reference in proper APA format.

—-Sample Assignment Answer—
Positive Social Change is a term used to describe the transformation of a society.
Positive social change is a term that refers to the process of transforming a society for the better.

The Student’s Institutional Affiliation and the Student’s Course are identified by their names.

The name of the professor, as well as the date

Positive social change is a term that refers to the process of transforming a society for the better.

Continuous education in the nursing field is beneficial for nurses who want to make a difference in the lives of their patients and their patients’ loved ones. One of the most pressing social concerns in the healthcare sector is the disparity between socioeconomic classes. This disparity has an impact on access to health-care services for all. Because of the high cost of care, healthcare services are complicated, as the poor are excluded from receiving treatment (Smith et al., 2021). Increased social change is required in order to bring down the high cost of care, which has resulted in a gap in the provision of care for many individuals. In my efforts to address the societal problem, having a higher level of nursing education will be beneficial to me. Evidence-based tools will help to improve patient care, and I intend to pursue them in order to provide low-cost, high-quality treatment to those who need it. Patients’ poor health outcomes can be avoided if they receive appropriate medical care at the appropriate time. In this process, patient education is critical to the outcome (Smith et al., 2021). The education of African Americans about the dangers of smoking, for example, can aid in reducing the number of people who smoke in their communities. Offering free lung cancer screening can help to prevent serious consequences that can occur when lung cancer is not detected and treated in its earliest stage. In order to address the issues of class and income that prevent the poor from gaining access to high-quality, low-cost health care, the activities are critical.

When providing treatment, nurses must take into account a variety of social constructs, one of which is the promotion of healthcare in the general population. It is essential to promote healthy lifestyles in the general public through public education, which is a key component of the efforts required to foster care in the general public. In order to successfully overcome a tobacco addiction, for example, the general public must be educated. In the long run, adopting a healthy lifestyle will aid in the prevention of drug and substance abuse, as well as the prevention of obesity and diabetes (Kennedy et al., 2019). It is possible to help prevent a variety of ailments if people are educated on how to make healthy choices. Preventative measures such as the promotion of healthcare in the general public should be implemented in order to help reduce the number of people who end up in hospitals. If the rate of hospitalization is reduced, the amount of congestion in healthcare facilities will be reduced (Kennedy et al., 2019). It is critical to implement this strategy in order to continue to provide high-quality care in the face of rising healthcare expenditures.

The patient’s right to privacy during medical treatment is the second social construct to take into consideration. Patients have a right to expect that their information will not be shared with any third parties under any circumstances, and this is what they should expect. Nursing care confidentiality has an impact on a patient’s trust and confidence in the nursing care they are receiving (Khanbodaghi et al., 2019). In light of the current cyber security challenges relating to data theft, it is critical to provide patients with assurances about the protection of their personal data. In order to keep information safe and secure, I will, for example, make use of advanced data management tools. When it comes to protecting patient information, data encryption is one of the technologies that cannot be overlooked (Khanbodaghi et al., 2019). Prior to beginning treatment, I will make certain that all personal information about the patients is kept confidential as well. Patients would benefit from the assurance because it will encourage them to have confidence in the healthcare system.

Using innovative and evidence-based approaches to combat the current healthcare crisis is my goal, and I intend to achieve this goal. Examples include putting together medical camps for low-income people who have been disproportionately affected by the disaster. Along with free services such as screening and public education, the medical camps will also offer free services to those who attend. Patients who have been diagnosed with various diseases such as diabetes, lung cancer, or obesity will be referred to appropriate healthcare facilities in their county or state of residence, as determined by the physician. The provision of public health education contributes to the improvement of the quality of results because it influences behavior (Kennedy et al., 2019). For example, quitting smoking has been shown to improve quality outcomes, such as a reduction in the rate of lung cancer in those who have quit smoking. I intend to address the issue of public health on a global scale by starting a nursing blog and writing about it. The blog will serve as a voice for low-income individuals and families seeking to protect their rights. A portion of the information will be used to raise funds for initiatives that will help low-income people get access to health-care services.

References

They discussed their findings in a paper published by M Kennedy and colleagues (S Gonick, H Meischke, J Rios, and N. A. Errett) in which they discussed their research (2019). Building healthier communities in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey requires the participation of local health departments as well as the integration of health promotion into disaster recovery planning and execution. 299 Environmental research and public health: an international journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 299

In the paper by A. Khanbodaghi and Z. S. Natto, and in the paper by Forero, M., and C. Y. Loo (2019). Researchers at Northeastern University in the United States investigated the effectiveness of an interprofessional oral health curriculum for pediatric nurse practitioner students as part of a larger research project. Journal of the British Dental Association, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-8.

The findings of the authors (Smith, J. A. Watkins, and D. C. Griffith) were published in the journal Science on March 1, 2010. (2021). To reduce to the bare minimum the health disparities that exist among boys and young men of color in the United States of America. Pages 1508-1515 in Health Promotion International, volume 36, number 5, September/October 2004.

References

M. Kennedy, S. Gonick, H. Meischke, J. Rios, and N. A. Errett published a paper in which they discussed their research (2019). Building better communities after Hurricane Harvey: Involvement of local health departments and integration of health promotion into disaster recovery planning and implementation. Environmental research and public health: an international journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), 299.

Ricarda Winkelmann and colleagues developed a conceptual framework for social tipping processes toward climate action. Ecological Economics, vol. 192, no. 107242, 2022.

In A. Khanbodaghi and Z. S. Natto’s paper, Forero, M., and C. Y. Loo’s paper (2019). A study conducted at Northeastern University in the United States examined the effectiveness of an interprofessional oral health program for pediatric nurse practitioner students. BMC Oral Health, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-8.

The authors (Smith, J. A. Watkins, and D. C. Griffith) present their findings in the journal Science (2021). Bringing health disparities among boys and young men of color in the United States down to a bare minimum. Health Promotion International, volume 36, number 5, pages 1508-1515. Positive Social Change is a term used to describe the transformation of a society.

Positive social change is a term that refers to the process of transforming a society for the better.

The Student’s Institutional Affiliation and the Student’s Course are identified by their names.

The name of the professor, as well as the date

Positive social change is a term that refers to the process of transforming a society for the better.

Continuous education in the nursing field is beneficial for nurses who want to make a difference in the lives of their patients and their patients’ loved ones. One of the most pressing social concerns in the healthcare sector is the disparity between socioeconomic classes. This disparity has an impact on access to health-care services for all. Because of the high cost of care, healthcare services are complicated, as the poor are excluded from receiving treatment (Smith et al., 2021). Increased social change is required in order to bring down the high cost of care, which has resulted in a gap in the provision of care for many individuals. In my efforts to address the societal problem, having a higher level of nursing education will be beneficial to me. Evidence-based tools will help to improve patient care, and I intend to pursue them in order to provide low-cost, high-quality treatment to those who need it. Patients’ poor health outcomes can be avoided if they receive appropriate medical care at the appropriate time. In this process, patient education is critical to the outcome (Smith et al., 2021). The education of African Americans about the dangers of smoking, for example, can aid in reducing the number of people who smoke in their communities. Offering free lung cancer screening can help to prevent serious consequences that can occur when lung cancer is not detected and treated in its earliest stage. In order to address the issues of class and income that prevent the poor from gaining access to high-quality, low-cost health care, the activities are critical.

When providing treatment, nurses must take into account a variety of social constructs, one of which is the promotion of healthcare in the general population. It is essential to promote healthy lifestyles in the general public through public education, which is a key component of the efforts required to foster care in the general public. In order to successfully overcome a tobacco addiction, for example, the general public must be educated. In the long run, adopting a healthy lifestyle will aid in the prevention of drug and substance abuse, as well as the prevention of obesity and diabetes (Kennedy et al., 2019). It is possible to help prevent a variety of ailments if people are educated on how to make healthy choices. Preventative measures such as the promotion of healthcare in the general public should be implemented in order to help reduce the number of people who end up in hospitals. If the rate of hospitalization is reduced, the amount of congestion in healthcare facilities will be reduced (Kennedy et al., 2019). It is critical to implement this strategy in order to continue to provide high-quality care in the face of rising healthcare expenditures.

The patient’s right to privacy during medical treatment is the second social construct to take into consideration. Patients have a right to expect that their information will not be shared with any third parties under any circumstances, and this is what they should expect. Nursing care confidentiality has an impact on a patient’s trust and confidence in the nursing care they are receiving (Khanbodaghi et al., 2019). In light of the current cyber security challenges relating to data theft, it is critical to provide patients with assurances about the protection of their personal data. In order to keep information safe and secure, I will, for example, make use of advanced data management tools. When it comes to protecting patient information, data encryption is one of the technologies that cannot be overlooked (Khanbodaghi et al., 2019). Prior to beginning treatment, I will make certain that all personal information about the patients is kept confidential as well. Patients would benefit from the assurance because it will encourage them to have confidence in the healthcare system.

Using innovative and evidence-based approaches to combat the current healthcare crisis is my goal, and I intend to achieve this goal. Examples include putting together medical camps for low-income people who have been disproportionately affected by the disaster. Along with free services such as screening and public education, the medical camps will also offer free services to those who attend. Patients who have been diagnosed with various diseases such as diabetes, lung cancer, or obesity will be referred to appropriate healthcare facilities in their county or state of residence, as determined by the physician. The provision of public health education contributes to the improvement of the quality of results because it influences behavior (Kennedy et al., 2019). For example, quitting smoking has been shown to improve quality outcomes, such as a reduction in the rate of lung cancer in those who have quit smoking. I intend to address the issue of public health on a global scale by starting a nursing blog and writing about it. The blog will serve as a voice for low-income individuals and families seeking to protect their rights. A portion of the information will be used to raise funds for initiatives that will help low-income people get access to health-care services.

References

They discussed their findings in a paper published by M Kennedy and colleagues (S Gonick, H Meischke, J Rios, and N. A. Errett) in which they discussed their research (2019). Building healthier communities in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey requires the participation of local health departments as well as the integration of health promotion into disaster recovery planning and execution. 299 Environmental research and public health: an international journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 299

In the paper by A. Khanbodaghi and Z. S. Natto, and in the paper by Forero, M., and C. Y. Loo (2019). Researchers at Northeastern University in the United States investigated the effectiveness of an interprofessional oral health curriculum for pediatric nurse practitioner students as part of a larger research project. Journal of the British Dental Association, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-8.

The findings of the authors (Smith, J. A. Watkins, and D. C. Griffith) were published in the journal Science on March 1, 2010. (2021). To reduce to the bare minimum the health disparities that exist among boys and young men of color in the United States of America. Pages 1508-1515 in Health Promotion International, volume 36, number 5, September/October 2004.

References

M. Kennedy, S. Gonick, H. Meischke, J. Rios, and N. A. Errett published a paper in which they discussed their research (2019). Building better communities after Hurricane Harvey: Involvement of local health departments and integration of health promotion into disaster recovery planning and implementation. Environmental research and public health: an international journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), 299.

Ricarda Winkelmann and colleagues developed a conceptual framework for social tipping processes toward climate action. Ecological Economics, vol. 192, no. 107242, 2022.

In A. Khanbodaghi and Z. S. Natto’s paper, Forero, M., and C. Y. Loo’s paper (2019). A study conducted at Northeastern University in the United States examined the effectiveness of an interprofessional oral health program for pediatric nurse practitioner students. BMC Oral Health, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-8.

The authors (Smith, J. A. Watkins, and D. C. Griffith) present their findings in the journal Science (2021). Bringing health disparities among boys and young men of color in the United States down to a bare minimum. Health Promotion International, volume 36, number 5, pages 1508-1515.

Equality of Educational Opportunity.

Equality of Educational Opportunity.
Name: \sProfessor: \sCourse : \sDate:
The right to equal educational opportunity.
The principle of equality in educational chances says that everyone should be able to attend educational services regardless of their individual talents. The idea that there should be uniformity in educational opportunities, where everyone has reasonable and equal access to decent quality education, regardless of their background, gender, race, or religion, and without any form of segregation, is protected under various international conventions and treaties. According to Article 26 of the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, “Everyone has the right to receive an education.” Education must be provided free of charge, at the very least at the “elementary and essential phases” of one’s existence (UN General Assembly resolution 217 A, 1948). As a result, it is widely understood that children should have equitable access to educational opportunities. Educational achievements are widely considered to be a critical factor of how successful societies are in achieving their goals. It is believed that variances in skill dispersion are responsible for variations in society wages. A child’s chances of success in the labor market are consequently greatly influenced by their educational attainment, and their life chances should not be defined by arbitrary variables such as the location of their birth, race, or social status. It is consequently critical that the principle of educational equality remains a fundamental objective.
The issue of equal educational opportunity can be classified as a legal one. It is also essential that if governments provide a service such as education, all citizens, regardless of their social level, should be able to take advantage of that provision. Almost every industrialized society has a legal obligation that children attend school for a defined period of time during their lives (Shields). Education, in contrast to other policies, is under the jurisdiction of government institutions and has the capacity to reach a great majority of children, independent of social, ethnic, or gender differences. Education also has the potential to reach a vast majority of children. Education is one of the most powerful instruments a government can employ to exert influence over its citizens. A consequence of this is that there are limits that prevent an equitable distribution of learning across a country (Shields). Some children may suffer dignitary injury as a result of unequal distribution of educational resources, which is a type of hurt that is detrimental to one’s sense of self-worth.
Equal educational opportunities in the United States have been hampered by court battles involving persons of color, according to the National Education Association. Certain judicial decisions resulted in the segregation of students in schools based on their skin tone. This issue was vividly demonstrated by a Supreme Court decision in 1896 that permitted racial discrimination in public schools and universities (Spring 146). In the aftermath of that ruling, the United States was forced to develop its own conception of race as a result of the Naturalization Act of 1790. Naturalized citizenship was only available to emigrants who were free white individuals under the terms of the law. The restriction on naturalized citizens’ ability to be white lasted until 1952, when the US Supreme Court was forced to define what it meant to be white. When the southern states passed the one drop of blood rule, they added another layer of intricacy to the situation. The one-drop rule of blood established that anyone who possessed African heritage, regardless of how far back they went, was considered an African American, according to the rule (Spring 147). Throughout its history, the United States has seen attempts to define race. In recent years, the topic of racial classification has been framed in terms of the principle of educational opportunity for all. School policies are being implemented in an effort to narrow the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students.
The concept of equal educational opportunity is predicated on the principle of equal treatment under the law. Specifically, the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution established that everyone is expected to get equal treatment under the law and that no one is expected to receive special treatment based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender, or religious affiliation (Spring 153). When the fourteenth constitutional amendment was ratified, it served to protect fundamental human rights embodied in the Bill of Rights from being violated by laws established by local governments and state legislatures. The change ensured that states would not be able to take away any rights granted to a citizen of the United States of America under the Constitution. Specifically, the amendment required that once state governments established a system of education, the service must be made available to all residents of that state on an equal basis (Spring 153). It was intended that a specific provision would be triggered in states that wished to provide for children with special needs. In 1954, a desegregation ruling invalidated the idea of separate but equal by finding that even if the schools had equivalent teachers and other facilities, the schools would still be unequal because of racial segregation in the student body.
In 1964, a major step was taken toward the elimination of segregation in schools and the promotion of equal educational opportunities for all students. Congress approved a critical civil rights statute that created a legal framework for requiring school desegregation to take place. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, known as Title VI, made it easier to withhold education money from schools that continued to practice racial segregation. The statute stated that no person could be denied admission to a school because of the color of their skin, their ethnicity, or their race. The act served as a cornerstone for federal control of public schools in the United States through influencing local education policies. As a result of this, the Federal Office of Education was transformed into a policing agency, with the job of ascertaining whether schools were segregated and what actions were being made to bring about their desegregation (Spring 155). The act reduced segregation in schools in the South, and plans for abolishing discrimination were handed to the federal education office in the late 1960s, paving the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
According to a 2014 research, the number of persons of different races who have equal educational chances has increased. According to the UCLA Civil Rights Project’s research on school segregation, the number of white students has decreased by 30%, while the number of Latino students has increased by nearly 500% in schools with white students. According to these statistics, a major proportion of suburban enrollment consisted of black and Latino children who were enrolling in schools with a low proportion of white pupils (Spring 156). They also imply that Latino and African students are more likely to attend schools with a large concentration of impoverished pupils, whereas Asians and white students are more likely to attend middle-class schools. As the paper points out, Latino pupils are now more separated than black children, according to the data. Additionally, because black and Latino kids are already more economically separated, they are more likely to attend schools with a large concentration of low-income students (Spring 156). The statistics presented above indicate that a rising proportion of Latino and black pupils are relocating to suburban areas. The dispersal of these students was indicative of a broader dispersal of minority groups away from major urban areas in the United States.
Historically, racial segregation in the United States has been strongly established in the country’s system of geographically delineated school districts. Schools in affluent neighborhoods are some of the best in the country (Spring 101). The cost of housing in certain neighborhoods is so exorbitant that it is out of reach for persons from lower socioeconomic classes. Members of the lowest social classes, who are primarily members of American minority groups, such as blacks and Latinos, relocate to areas where they can afford low-cost housing. The majority of wealthy neighborhoods in the United States are located near big cities, where housing values are extremely high. In some school districts, the differences that occur depending on where different people of different socioeconomic classes live result in a type of economic segregation because of where they live (Spring 102). Disparities in educational achievements are a result of inequalities in learning environments.
Local state funds, which receive contributions from local property taxes, provide funding for public schools. It appears that some schools may be segregated depending on where they are located, based on the transfer of black and Latino children from America’s major cities into suburban neighborhoods. (Shields). This patchwork depicts the racial and socioeconomic class segregation that occurs in the quest for equal educational opportunities as a result of residential segregation in the search for equal educational opportunities. The amount of student funding that each student receives varies dramatically across all of the states in the United States. For example, it has been demonstrated that some of these discrepancies in some states are higher than the intrastate variances that have gotten more attention in the past (Shields). The laws intended to offer equal educational opportunities have persisted to allow for financing discrepancies that disproportionately affect poor Americans, the majority of whom are persons of color, despite efforts to close the gap. The disproportionate flow of resources to children from the upper quartile of society makes it difficult for children from lower quintiles of society to have an equal opportunity of achieving success.
In the United States, a person’s social class has the potential to have significant ramifications. It is possible for one’s position in the social class hierarchical system to have an impact on key aspects of a person’s life, including medical care, education, and religious affiliations, as well as their interactions with the criminal justice system (Boundless Sociology). As a result, social class can be characterized as a hierarchical grouping of individuals in an order based on wealth, income, education, occupation, or social network, with the lowest being the most privileged. American social classes are a contentious notion, with social scientists debating the models, definitions and even the question of whether or not social classes still exist in the country. However, regardless of the social class model that is employed, social and economic standing are linked to a certain set of resources and possibilities in some way. A person’s social and financial situation can be defined in the same way that a person’s position in the social ladder can be (Boundless Sociology). Wealth, educational achievements, and income are all factors that influence one’s standing in the hierarchy.
Social classes play a crucial role in determining educational chances for all students regardless of their background. People who are at the top of the social ladder are more likely to attend prominent schools or schools of greater quality than those at the bottom. Lower-class individuals, on the other hand, are more likely to enroll in low-income schools or schools located in suburban areas of larger cities (Boundless Sociology). As a result, high-class residents are more likely to have greater levels of education, which translates into higher earnings in the workplace. The high class also can access more education advantages as they can afford private schooling for their children. The high-class members also have the choice of enrolling their children in public state-funded schools that are likely to be of higher quality than members of the lower groups who live in impoverished neighborhoods (Boundless Sociology). High-end areas tend to have a higher tax return, and as a result, their schools are of higher quality and have better facilities than those in poor states.
In America today, social class is the single most crucial factor that has a significant influence on how ready a student is when the child gets enrolled in a school. A low social class places a child further away in the starting lineup for studies (Garcia and Weiss). The problem is further compounded by factors such as race and ethnicity. Low social class poses a significant barrier in young children’s readiness to start learning, reading, and doing math. Research conducted by the starting gate showed substantial gaps in the reading abilities of black and Latino when compared to Hispanics and Asians. Racially based gaps are seen to shrink when factors such as social class are considered. These performance gaps between students from different social types indicate significant unmet needs in underprivileged schools (Garcia and Weiss). The results also show that there us a lot of untapped potential in children coming from low social, economic statuses.
Low economic prospects can be attributed to small educational achievement that leads to a lack of social mobility across different generations. The society is also losing when talents in children remain utilized and are allowed to fallow due to lack of support (Garcia and Weiss). The disparities between educational and economic inequalities indicate apparent failures that the American society has not been able to solve of unequal educational opportunity that betrays the ideal of the “American dream.”
Another critical factor in the determination of equality for education opportunity is education and income. Education and income play a central role in the ability of a school to provide equality of opportunity. Different placements in different industries contribute directly to the average anal salary in a person (Spring 95). As mentioned above, the level of educational achievement plays a vital role in the economic success of a person. Other factors, such as race and gender, also contribute to determining the personal income of a person. There exist disparities in the annual wages and lifetime earning of people based on gender and race. Generally, white men make more than anybody (Spring 97). The disparities, however, decrease with an increase in the level of education. However, in all levels of academic achievement, men tend to earn more than those women. These statistics indicate that income in the United States of America is related to the level of educational achievement. However, some factors such as race and gender negate some of the advantages gained in the labor market by having an increased level of education (Spring 98). Inequalities in access to education opportunities deny some children from lower social classes the chance to enjoy these advantages.
Some policies implemented tend to reinforce the inequality problem that singingly affects educational opportunities. Children who come from poor backgrounds tend to bring more issues to schools that children who come from more affluent backgrounds could avoid. These problems affect their readiness to read as well as inhibit their ability to take advantage of what they are taught (Hochschild 827). Issues that are associated with reduced children include poor health and nutrition, family instability, frequent movements ad, and lack of or having few educational materials. Another risk is that there is a higher chance of having parents who do not have a formal education (Hochschild 827). In a bid to reduce this class related disparities, policymakers must address these problems that cannot be blamed entirely on the educational system. Public schools may as well contribute to the reduction of the harm brought to school by children from low-income families. Financial inequality across school districts, excessive ability grouping, and offerings of unequal curricular across schools as well as disparities in the quality of teaching across schools add up to the disadvantages children from impoverished backgrounds get (Hochschild 831). Improving funding in poor districts can help in raising test scores and reducing the level of educational inequality based on specific neighborhoods. Children living in impoverished areas are much more likely to be taught by less effective teachers. The cumulative impact of poor teaching can be difficult to reverse (Hochschild, 829). To enable children from low social classes access good education, policymakers need to design policies that send poor children to schools that have wealthier children or seek to provide an education in their neighborhoods that encompasses features of schooling for wealthy children.
In conclusion, equality for educational opportunity advocates for access to education opportunities for everyone regardless of factors such as race, gender, ethnicity, or social class. American history has had legal tussles involving racial segregation in public schools. Congress passed the Title VI act of 1964 that brought a change by withholding funds meant for public schools that continued with the practice of racial segregation. The law laid the cornerstone for federal America to control the education system through the federal education office. By 2014, the number of Latino and black student’s enrollment in public school had risen tremendously. Inequality in education opportunities is tied to racial racially related factors such as educational neighborhoods as well as social classes. Black and Latino students mostly enroll in schools in suburban districts where the cost of living is considerably low. On the other hand, rich children are enrolled in schools in affluent neighborhoods in central cities. The level of education is better than in poor district schools. Policymakers can solve this disparity in education brought about by economic factors by increasing funding for schools in poor neighborhoods.
Works Cited Boundless Sociology. Stratification, Inequality, and Social Class in the U.S. n.d. 08 May 2020. .
Garcia, Emma and Elaine Weiss. “Education inequalities at the school starting gate.” 2017. https://www.epi.org/publication/education-inequalities-at-the-school-starting-gate/ . 08 May 2020. .
Hochschild, Jennifer L. “Social Class in Public Schools.” Journal of Social Issues (2003): 821-840.
Shields, Liam, Newman, Anne and Satz, Debra. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Stanford: Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2017. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2017/entries/equal-ed-opportunity/ .
Spring, Joel. American Education. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2018.
UN General Assembly resolution 217 A. “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” 10 December 1948. United Nations. 08 May 2020. .

Topic: Deconstructing Race and Nation

Topic: Deconstructing Race and Nation
Class: World Literature
Course Description: This course introduces students to masterpieces of world literature in translation, with particular attention to the cultural traditions reflected in the literature. The course uses specific works of literature to show the evolution of the human experience from ancient times to the present day. Overall, the course aims to teach students more about what it has meant, and continues to mean, to be a human being in cultures around the world.
Assignment: Deconstructing Race and Nation
Thoughtfully create a written response to the following questions, citing all outside sources in MLA format:
1. In the beginning of Americanah, one of Ifemelu friends states, “She’ll come back and be a serious Americanah…” (65). How is “Americanah” defined within the novel? Does Ifemelu become an Americanah? If so, how?

2. Within Americanah, Adichie is careful to portray the cultures of each country. How do racial identities shift from country to country?

3. In her blog, Ifemelu carefully categorizes differences amongst members of the African Diaspora: Africans, African Americans, Afro-Caribbean Americans. She does not make these distinctions in Nigeria. What observations does Ifemelu make, and why does she make them in America, rather than Nigeria?

Readings:
“Americanah: A Novel by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

If you are not familiar with this novel, you can use this as a summary:
https://www.litcharts.com/lit/americanah
An interview with Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie on Americanah.
In this interview, Adichie discusses the issues of identity, the legacy of colonialism, and race in Americanah and her thought process that informed her writing of the novel.

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Deconstructing Race and Nation
Name \sInstructor\sCourse

Date

Dismantling the Concepts of Race and Nation

1.

Within the novel written by Adichie, there is a way in which Americanah is defined in a particular way. It tells the stories of various African immigrants who have settled in America and adapted to the American way of life. Ifemelu is the novel’s central character and the novel’s protagonist. She is a young Nigerian who travels to the United States to further her education because her campus in Nigeria has been closed due to a series of strikes (Adichie). Because Ifemelu is attempting to adjust to her new environment, her stay in a foreign country is difficult. This includes dealing with white people and the fact that racism is a major issue that affects a large proportion of the population.

Ifemelu was born and raised in the United States. This is due to the fact that she adopted an American intonation and straightened her hair like the whites in order to blend in (Adichie). She also dated a white wealthy man and even created a fictitious identity in order to look for employment. Ifemelu, on the other hand, was in the United States legally because she had a student visa, which allowed her to pursue higher education. Besides that, Ifemelu was well aware that if she returned to Nigeria, she would be labeled as a “Americanah.” Ifemelu was given this moniker by her family because she had adapted to the American way of life. People in Nigeria are known as Americanah because they pretend to have forgotten their mother tongue, refuse to eat home-cooked meals, and speak with an accent when in fact they do not.

2.

It is true that racial identities differ from one country to the next. People in Nigeria, for example, are all conscious of their black identity. Nigerians, on the other hand, prefer light-skinned people because they believe they are more attractive when compared to dark-skinned people. Furthermore, if a Nigerian is acquainted with a white individual, that individual will be instantly recognized by the Nigerian. In turn, when Ifemelu travels abroad, she is subjected to the pressure of fitting into the American way of life. Her aunt Uju, who works as a doctor in a foreign country, has a difficult time dealing with patients who do not want her to provide her services (Adichie). Furthermore, because they were dating, Curt, Ifemelu’s white boyfriend, was criticized by the public. This implied that interracial relationships would be subjected to difficulties.

Obinze, an African immigrant who was living in England at the time, had similar experiences with racial identities. Obinze was once Ifemelu’s Nigerian lover, but the two were forced to part ways because they both moved to different countries. Obinze was subjected to racial discrimination when he was referred to as a “knee-grow” because he scraped his lap on the floor (Adichie). Furthermore, Obinze is having difficulties after his visa expires. He begins to obtain other people’s identities in order to obtain employment. He is successful. Obinze also desires money so that he can purchase a green card marriage for himself and his family (Adichie). Later, he is apprehended by authorities and deported back to his home country of Nigeria. People in England are fearful of immigrants, which caused Obinze to feel despiseful of his country.

3.

While in America, Ifemelu makes a number of observations that are worth noting. One of them is that Nigerians who lived in America used to brag about their accomplishments to other migrants, which was not uncommon (Adichie). This is when Ifemelu, who lives in New Jersey but attends Princeton, decided she wanted to get her hair done. Nonetheless, she is unable to locate any African salons in Princeton, so she decides to look in a different city. Ifemelu is relieved that the taxi driver who took her to a salon was not a Nigerian national of any nationality.

In addition to her interactions with the hairdressers, she made the following observation: Aisha, a Senegalese immigrant, was assigned the task of repairing Ifemelu’s hair. Aisha is amused by Ifemelu’s desire to braid her hair rather than relax it, rather than relax it (Adichie). Aisha believes that braiding does not present a professional image. Ifemelu is surprised because Africans desire their hair to be similar to that of white people and because braids are considered unprofessional.

The other observation she made was while talking with Aisha on the phone. Aisha revealed that she is dating an Igbo man, but that she does not intend to marry him (Adichie). This is due to the fact that the Igbo people in America believe in marrying within their own community. Ifemelu informs Aisha that the story is a fabrication. Igbo people have the freedom to marry whomever they want. Ifemelu became aware that immigrants held strange doctrines or held strange religious beliefs.

The final observation was made about immigrants showing respect for another American-African based on the number of years they have lived in America. This is shown when Ifemelu had to lie to Aisha that she has lived in America for fifteen years but instead it was thirteen (Adichie). Ifemelu was well aware that by deceiving Aisha, she would gain respect. Additionally, Ifemelu makes numerous observations in America rather than Nigeria. This is because in America the citizens view life differently. Ifemelu never knew she was “black” until she lived in America where racism is at its core.

Works Cited

Adichie, Chimamanda N. “Americanah.” https://www.litcharts.com/lit/americanah#context, 2020,

Works Cited
Adichie, Chimamanda N. “Americanah.” https://www.litcharts.com/lit/americanah#context, 2020,

CW1 Essay (1,500 words) In Block One of Media Cultures

Media and Race
Assessment Information:
• CW1 Essay (1,500 words)
In Block One of Media Cultures, we commenced our ongoing exploration of how self-perception, and
our perception of others, are a consequence of social relations, informed by the value judgments we
make. Moreover, we have suggested that the question of media power and how it is experienced – how
it is felt – is central to how we understand the fluid formation of our identities.
In order to demonstrate your grasp of the concept of identity as we have defined it, you are required to
write a 1,500-word essay in which you explore how a component of your own identity has been shaped
by mediated representations. You should therefore start your research by identifying at least one of the
following categories, all of which are premised on the construction of social groups:
Gender Language
Nationhood
‘Race’
Social Class
You may select more than one of these categories, and in doing so you will want to explore how they
intersect (for example, the concept of ‘hybridity’ may be central to your account).
In addressing this task, you will need to demonstrate how this social process of identity formation is not
necessarily one of conscious choice. This is where our debate about media power is central – you may
wish to argue, for example, that one facet of your identity is very much determined by the perception
other social groups have of you and how that perception is habitually framed by media representations
to the extent that it becomes an unconscious way of seeing. You should therefore identify at least one
media representation that supports your argument (e.g., film; broadcast; music video; newspaper
coverage; news item etc.)
Task summary:
Select at least one category and at least one related media representation.
In writing your essay you should draw on the reading material we have presented you with thus far in
order to underpin your analysis with reference to scholarly debates regarding the concept of identity.
Each reading you reference (you are not restricted by a maximum number) should be evidenced in your
bibliography and, where appropriate, citation in the form of direct quotation or paraphrasing.
Finally, although short in word length, this is a formal academic essay, so please refer to the module
guide in terms of study skills guidance.
All assignments should conform to the general standards of presentation: legibility, spelling, syntax,
paragraphs, introduction, main body and conclusion. The title of the piece of work should be shown
clearly on the first page, all pages should be numbered and properly referenced, and the work must
include a full bibliography of all sources referred to. Essays should be word-processed using a suitable
size font (12) and with adequate margins to allow for assessors’ comments. You should record the word
length of your essay at the end of the work.
Useful reading resources and more:
• Buckingham, D. (2008). “Introducing Identity” in: Buckingham, D. (ed.) Youth, Identity and
Digital Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
• Additional reading: ‘Introduction’, pp 1 – 12 in Hodkinson, P. (2011) Media, culture and society.
An introduction. London: Sage
• Stansfield, T. (2019). ‘In his words: Akala’s path to political awakening’. Available at:
https://www.anothermanmag.com/life-culture/10783/akala-interview-2019-natives-race-
andclass-in-the-ruins-of-empire
• ‘Media, Race and Ethnicity’, pp 221 – 238 in Hodkinson, P. (2011) Media, culture and society. An
introduction. London: Sage
• Woodward, K. (1997). Identity and Difference. London: Sage. Note: this reading is quite long but
serves as an excellent resource to return to repeatedly.
• Tomlinson, J. (2011). Cultural Globalization Reconsidered. Available at:
https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/BBVA-OpenMind-
CulturalGlobalization-Reconsidered-John-Tomlinson.pdf.pdf
• Woodward, K. (1997). Identity and Difference. London: Sage. Note: this reading is quite long but
serves as an excellent resource to return to repeatedly.
• pp 201 – 217 “Media, Community & Difference: From Mass Stigmatisation to Grassroots Identity
Groups in Hodkinson, P. (2011) Media, culture and society. An introduction. London: Sage
• Hall, S. (1997/2013), ‘’The Work of Representation’ in Stuart Hall, Jessica Evans & Sean Nixon,
Representation (2nd edition). London, California, New Delhi & Singapore: Sage.
• ‘Media texts as arrangements of signs’ pp.60 -70 in Hodkinson, P. (2011) Media, culture and
society. An introduction. London: Sage. KORTEXT (Kortext is a digital textbook platform)
• The Maiden with the Snake. Interpretations of a Print Advertisement’ pp. 167-180 in Berger, A.
A., (2009). Media Analysis Techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA/ London: Sage.
• Goffman, E. (1979). Gender Advertisements. London: Macmillan. Available at Gender
Commercials, page 24 – 47Available at http://www.publiccollectors.org/Goffman_Gender.pdf
• ‘Media texts as arrangements of signs’ pp.60 -70 in Hodkinson, P. (2011) Media, culture and
society. An introduction. London: Sage. KORTEXT
• Gauntlett, D. (2008) Chapter 6 ‘Foucault Discourses and Lifestyles’ Media, Gender and Identity.
London: Routledge.
• Finding Fanon – is a series of three films by artists Larry Achiampong and David Blandy; inspired
by the lost plays of Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), the two artists negotiate Fanon’s ideas, examining
the politics of race, racism and the post-colonial.

Media and Race
THE MEDIA AND THE CULTURE

Author

Course Tutor Institution City Date Course Tutor
The Media and Racial Profiling
Racism is defined as any action, institutional structure, or attitude that causes an individual or a group of people to appear inferior because of their race or ethnic background. Discrimination, bias, and disempowerment in the context of race have existed for a long time in many areas of the media mainstream, including entertainment, advertising, and even news broadcasts on television. Broadcasting in its early years, which date back to the introduction of television in the year ’39, sparked a national debate about racial discrimination in the United States, which was quickly followed by the formation of an outspoken civil rights organization dedicated to racial equality. It became clear at that point that, with the introduction of extremely complex programs of entertainment, advertising, and news reporting, inequalities in regard to race would continue to manifest themselves in these mediums. During the early years of television, the majority of the people who worked in entertainment programs, advertising, and news were white. Similar to several other white color jobs in the United States, and in a similar vein, the values and opinions held by this powerful group were revealed in media that was produced. It was at this point that the opinions of those who were involved in the industry were invited to express themselves on how media content was selected, created, and displayed. The advertisement for the globally sold goods featured a picture of white people, allowing the colored American to only advertise goods that were sold to Black people in the United States.
The films of that era did not portray a realistic image of African Americans in their entirety. The Black American people were portrayed as thieves, ignorant, savage, rapists, and interlopers in early films such as the Tarzan Series (1932) and Birth of Nation (1915), which were both made in the United States (Luther et al., 2012. p 59). In addition, the misrepresentation of early films, such as Colored Americans being messed around by Caucasian people who dyed their skin to appear black, conveyed a very heavy symbolic meaning to the audience. These connotations implied that people of color lacked the ability to stage themselves and that Blacks lacked the talents necessary to satisfy a personality that can only be created by Caucasians, respectively. The attainment of these responsibilities by the Caucasians conveyed a hidden meaning to the audience, namely, that the Caucasian group is the preferred group and the only group capable of participating in the mainstream media environment. Because these videos were effective and provided divided society with a glimpse into the lives of people of color that was previously only available to African Americans, the dangerous representation of people of color presented a difficult challenge. People of color struggled to act for their beliefs, ideas, identities, and stories during the early stages of media and film because Caucasians were in charge of the entertainment industry and chose which figures of Colored Americans would be conveyed to the public.
During the early years of the media industry, black people were underrepresented in this field. Blaxploitation, a film from the early 1970s, featured African-Americans as main characters. The films were intended to demonstrate to the community that Colored Americans could be protagonists in a story and be successful in overpowering the discrimination based on their race that was imposed on them by the Caucasian group through their use of color. These films were managed by African-Americans, despite the fact that the film contracts were dictated and held by organizations such as the Motion Picture Association of America and Colombian Pictures, both of which were controlled by whites. The films in the Blaxploitation genre were not well received by the majority of the audience, who were predominantly white, resulting in their failure to generate significant profits. The cessation of production of these films indicates that the Caucasian group has maintained control over the media. In his book Akala’s Path to Political Awakening, Stanfield claims that Akala was looked down upon and called names by white people simply because he was half-white and half-African (Stansfield et al., 2019). This clearly demonstrates that Caucasians believe they are superior to other races in terms of perceived superiority. At the beginning of the media’s existence, white people were the subjects of attention. Several of them were immigrants from Europe who concentrated on mass media in order to better understand the people in their current state. Women of color and men were treated as “alternative viewers,” who were not in sufficient numbers to have an impact on the message that was being broadcast to the majority of viewers by the media.
One example of the media’s influence on racism is the reporting of crime in social media, which has become contentious as a result of the impression it gives as a result of racial bias disagreement. The stories that were chosen to be broadcast have been criticized for the way they portray racial populations, and even for the way racial populations are highlighted in crime broadcasting. According to a study that looked into discrimination in the television news when it came to portraying criminals in Chicago, criminals who were black were always elucidated by showing a photograph of the culprits being moved around in manacles while Caucasian police officers in uniform held their hands, according to the study. There were no images of white criminals with handcuffs around their wrists or in their arms. Additionally, according to the findings of the investigation, media depictions of lawbreaking and crime, as well as global reactions to such depictions, play a significant role in maintaining and creating the stereotype of people of color as dangerous and criminals. It is possible to argue that the availability of the typecast that focuses on people of color as criminals is the result of unfair reporting. This includes informational and visual content that is more geared toward colored wrongdoers than it is toward Caucasian wrongdoers, as well as subjects that are more focused on Caucasian ill-treatment.
The idea that African American men are always the targets of the discrimination discussed in the media is strongly associated with the discussion of discrimination in the media. Despite the fact that members of the community who identify as Black Americans are at risk of being discriminated against by the media. According to the findings of the investigations, men who are African-Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from the media. Colored men are disproportionately affected by biased reporting, and they are also more likely to be influenced in ways that are at odds with their cultural perspectives. Caucasian Americans learn about Africans or Black Americans through descriptions depicted in the media, rather than through personal interactions with these people. Unfortunately, these descriptions are also shared by a number of African Americans. According to the findings of the research, Black Americans who are exposed on television and in the media are likely to convey a very low sense of self-worth.
Racist microaggressions are yet another manifestation of racism in the modern world. While contemporary reporters do not publicly support discrimination on the basis of race, they do use sound and visual cues to stereotype their viewers. Approximately 450 reports of criminal activity were evaluated as part of an investigation conducted by Entman. A video or photograph had been taken, and the race and the name (which was specifically addressed to whites and Blacks) had been communicated. About two hundred and fifty criminals were white, accounting for seventy-two percent of all criminals. Ninety of the perpetrators (or 28% of the total) were African-American. He came to the conclusion that if the names of the Black Americans in the picture were not given, it implied that the pictorial demonstrations could be integrated into a larger group that was not differentiated, in which case the stereotype of the Male Black American was dangerous. The unidentified person’s portrayal represents the typecast. The name is insignificant because the person represents a well-known group of people who are not white population (Stansfield et al., 2019).
The whites considered themselves to be more superior than any other race in world. Even if the British assume to be superior, they will never be. The great young individuals from humble origins, and specifically young men of color, are familiar with the obstacles that are will unsurprisingly appear before them; they will go over them with a lot of ease. The young black Americans should always strive to work hard even if they are looked down upon or even when they are discriminated against. Akala worked really hard and achieved the success he strived for even after being discriminated against by the white. He did not hope at any given point. That is the reason why he is giving hope to the young African Americans to work very hard in school and pursue their dreams with more efforts in order for them to be more successful in life despite the bias, discrimination, and superiority of the whites in the country they are in.
In America there is discrimination even in the kind of education a black child is ljkely to get. He attended a poor black school in the land where he was taught how the world works. They were taught the nature of the world not to make them biased and discriminative but to make them understand how tough the world can sometimes be and how tough they ought to be in order to succeed in that tough world. In America, there is a clear distinction between the type of school the Blacks should attend and the one that should be attended by the whites. The white’s superiority can still be felt in the world today. Some of them do not embrace the equality of all human beings in spite of gender, color, and even religion. Even though Akala was not fully African American, he still faced a rough time due to the white’s discrimination and bias; they did not see him as one of them. Right now, Akala leads a luxurious life in spite of how he grew up. He went through a lot in his childhood life until he felt like the law of the land does not apply to him the same way it applies to other people. He finally states that there are several reasons to be hopeful.
In conclusion, it is of significance to state that media discrimination and bias are the signs of the ineradicable spots remaining in the community from past ordeals. These marks are nuanced and extensive to the current public climate that reports for many decades, social, cultural, and political movements. Some of them are continuing. It is also important to state that broadcast media has a significant influence on the environment since it impacts the values, belief systems, and how individuals relate to one another. The message that the media conveys to the civic with respect to a specific racial group turns out to be the means of understanding the images, behaviors, and expectations of other people. When white actors portray people of color as wrongdoers, aggressive, and dangerous, then the public will understand the blacks to have the traits they are being said of them. Not just part of the black population but all black people. This is the belief the broadcast media restates continually. The media also affects the feeling individuals may have towards male Black Americans. The media is an organization; hence it affects the which are often based on the race of seme individuals. Thus, the media strengthens discrimination and racism through the use of racial micro-assault in the content section and viewers.
Bibliography
Luther, C., Ringer Lepre, C., & Clark, N. (2012). Diversity in U.S. Mass Media. Malden: Wiley- Blackwell.
Catherine A. Luther
Associate Professor and the Associate Dean for Academic Programs in the College of Communication and Information at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and was once a television news producer for American and Japanese television networks.

Stansfield, T. (2019). ‘In his words: Akala’s path to political awakening’. Available at: https://www.anothermanmag.com/life-culture/10783/akala-interview-2019-natives-race-and class-in-the-ruins-of-empire
Akala
Rapper, intellectual and writer, Akala is one of the most incendiary voices of his generation. In his new book, Natives: Race and Class in the Ruins of Empire, he debunks the British myth of meritocracy. Here, he shares his intellectual journey shares his intellectual journey

Social Work and Human Services Topic: Motivational Interview

Case Study Catalina
Catalina is a 42-year old Hispanic female who recently retired from the military. She received multiple evaluations as part of her retirement, from both medical and mental health providers. She has frequent nightmares and flashbacks related to combat and carries a diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. She has been seen in Primary Care for physical health issues. She is currently prescribed medication for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and lower back/joint pain. Catalina is working to improve her health through diet and exercise, though these issues conflict with her personal identity (e.g., able bodied, strong combat veteran, etc.)
In addition to retirement, Catalina is newly remarried after dating for about a year. The family home is slightly cramped as her new wife still has two teenage children living at home. The adjustments to space and finances are manageable, though Catalina disagrees with her new wife’s parenting style, as it is quite different from her two children whom are sophomores in college out of state.. The main problem at home is Catalina has increased the volume of alcohol she consumes during an average drinking session. Her wife sought professional assistance, as she was concerned about the frequency and volume of her drinking. Catalina reports drinking approximately one fifth of vodka per evening. She has entered your care, as she is seeking support however, she remains “on the fence because I believe my drinking is under control, I am retired and I have always had a high tolerance.”
Catalina’s wife has expressed a holistic approach to recovery that emphasizes spiritual, cultural, and connectedness as important in her Hispanic community and would be necessary for the intervention to succeed. She has emphasized the need for a multi-level intervention targeting individuals, families, and the community as a whole.
Make sure to use four different MI strategies (e.g. develop discrepancy, express empathy, OARS, amplify ambivalence, roll with resistance, support self-efficacy, etc.) to illustrate your understanding and implementation of this approach. You must demonstrate the clinical style of motivational interviewing (MI). Additionally, be mindful to integrate trauma-informed principles of engagement (e.g., trauma awareness; emphasis on safety and trustworthiness; opportunity for choice, collaboration, and connection; and/or strengths-based approaches and skills building).

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Exemple Catalina
Catalina, 42, is a Hispanic woman who recently retired. Her retirement included many medical and mental health exams. She suffers regular nightmares and flashbacks from combat and is diagnosed with PTSD. In Primary Care, she had physical difficulties. Her doctor has her on blood pressure, cholesterol, and back/joint pain medicine. Health considerations including nutrition and exercise conflict with Catalina’s personal identity (e.g., able bodied, strong combat veteran, etc.)
Catalina is also newly remarried after a year of courting. Her new wife still has two teenage children living at home. Catalina issues with her new wife’s parenting style, which is considerably different from her two out-of-state sophomore children’s. The primary issue at home is that Catalina has increased her average drinking session. Her wife sought help because she was worried about her drinking habits. Catalina reports a fifth of vodka per night. “I am on the fence since I believe my drinking is under control, am retired, and have always had a high tolerance,” she says, having come to you for help.
Catalina’s wife believes that a holistic approach to treatment that stresses spiritual, cultural, and connectedness is critical to the intervention’s success. An individual, family, and community intervention is required, she says.
Create ambiguity, exhibit empathy, OARS (amplify ambivalence), roll with resistance (roll with resistance), and encourage self-efficacy (etc.) to demonstrate your comprehension and application of this method. You must use clinical motivational interviewing (MI). Encourage choice, collaboration, and connection, and/or use trauma-informed practices and skills building.

Roles Played by Media in Society

Roles Played by Media in Society
Name \sTutor\sCourse

Date

The Functions of the Media in Contemporary Society

The media has become an integral part of people’s daily lives in the modern world. The media has a significant impact on the way people live their lives. It penetrates their understanding and perception, conveying a wide range of information that has an impact on their values and beliefs. In addition, it plays an important role in today’s society, either by strengthening or weakening the fabric of society. In order to fulfill its primary function, it must provide current news and fashion information as well as advertising for the newest devices to hit the market. Through the way they present news, media personalities in the United States frequently reinforce the stereotype that Whites are more superior than African Americans, according to some studies. The media has played a significant role in the promotion of racism in the United States through the way they conduct their operations and the way they present information. Many films have been made in which other races are portrayed as being more superior.

Furthermore, the media has an impact on race relations and the perceptions of African Americans held by white people in the United States. The films Coon, Mammy, and Sambo depict some of the historical stereotypes about African Americans that have been perpetuated by the media. The film Coon perpetuates the stereotype that African-Americans or Black Americans were easily scared and too lazy to carry out their responsibilities (Hancock, Jolls, and Jolls, 335). The stereotype goes on to suggest that Africans preferred to remain hidden rather than carry out their assigned tasks. They would sometimes pretend to be ill in order to avoid going to work (Hancock, Jolls, and Jolls, 335). The film Mammy depicted a stereotype that Black women preferred to look after white children rather than their own young children. The stereotype demonstrated that Black slaves were obedient and content with their lot in life as slaves. Finally, the film Sambo creates the stereotype that African-Americans benefited from their slavery and were delighted to be treated as property, which is not true in reality. This is illustrated by the fact that media has an impact on how other people perceive African Americans in the films shown here.

Aside from that, the contemporary media continues to perpetuate false stereotypes of African Americans. African Americans are frequently depicted as criminals in crime-related television programming. African American offenders are reported when they are handcuffed and led away by a white police officer, which is in contrast to reporting a crime committed by a white person (Guo and Harlow, 281). The same is true in many films of the modern era, where black people are given the role of villains who must be defeated. Weapon and drug smugglers, addicts, and violent races are all stereotyped as being associated with them on an almost daily basis in film and television. The way that black people are portrayed in the media portrays them as a race that should be feared. In many films, Caucasians are portrayed as police officers rather than as criminals, and this is especially true in the genre of crime drama (Guo and Harlow, 284). In a similar vein, when compared to Black Americans, they frequently appear as victims in presentations and films. When compared to Caucasians, the portrayal of Blacks as criminals on television news shows and in films is more blatantly racist. By perpetuating that stereotype, the media contributes significantly to the spread of racism and prejudice against African-Americans.

On the other hand, despite the fact that these stereotypes were intended solely for entertainment purposes, they have had a significant impact on the strengthening of racial bias and discrimination in our society. It is believed by the cultivation theory that people’s attitudes can be changed by constantly consuming news and entertainment media. The theory also suggests that the greater the amount of media content that people consume, the greater the likelihood that they will be influenced. People’s minds are permanently imprinted with the stories, beliefs, values, and images they see on a daily basis. As a result, they have a significant impact on how they perceive things. Whites are led to believe that they are superior to blacks by watching films and news broadcasts that depict blacks as violent and criminal (Van Dijk, 20). Racism is exacerbated as a result of the formation of these perceptions.. Furthermore, it is believed that people gain knowledge from what they see or hear in the media. For example, children frequently learn through observation, and they eventually become what they observe. After watching films that are biased and discriminatory towards a particular race or ethnic group, children will grow up believing that the racial group in question is so inferior that it should be looked down upon. As a result, a negative portrayal of a specific racial group can lead to a long-lasting negative attitude toward that group in general.

Furthermore, stereotypes are perpetuated by the media in order to undermine the self-esteem of African-Americans. A number of studies have found that long-term exposure to television and films lowers the self-worth of young black people while raising the self-esteem of white people (Van Dijk, 20). When comparing people of color and Caucasians, there is a significant difference in self-esteem. Caucasians are portrayed as heroes, while Blacks are subordinated and erased as sexual objects, villains, and sidekicks in popular culture. Furthermore, racial images presented by the media and entertainment industry have the potential to distort how people categorize and understand one another and their surroundings (Van Dijk, 22). In some cases, films and media can have a negative impact on how Caucasians perceive African-Americans. In a similar vein, racist fear can be exacerbated by racial stereotypes depicted on television and in films. People are encouraged to increase racial discrimination and biases against other races as a result of what they see on television and in the media.

To summarize, media portrayals of a particular racial group can have a significant impact on the beliefs and values held by that group. Television is used by a large number of people in the modern world to keep up with important news and market trends. People’s thoughts and perceptions are influenced by the media, and advertisements can alter people’s perceptions and thoughts depending on what the media is presenting. In addition, films play an important role in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of their audiences. So the media plays an important role in either encouraging or discouraging racism and bias in the public spheres.

Works Cited

Guo, Lei, and Summer Harlow. “User-generated racism: An analysis of stereotypes of African Americans, Latinos, and Asians in YouTube videos.” Howard Journal of Communications 25.3 (2014): 281-302.

Hancock, Quentin, Tessa Jolls, and Peter Jolls. “Racism and stereotypes in electronic media. ” Public Library Quarterly 32.4 (2013): 333-344.

Van Dijk, Teun A. “The role of the press in the reproduction of Racism. ” Migrations: interdisciplinary perspectives. Springer, Vienna, 2012. 15-29.

Gender Equity

Gender Equity
Gender Equity Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Date Gender Equity Student’s Name

On the occasion of a United Nations conference, a young woman by the name of Emma Watson delivered a powerful speech on gender balance and equity throughout the world, initiating a campaign called “HeForShe” to the group in order to get support for the organization’s acknowledgement of female stereotypes. According to the speech, women face a variety of difficulties since society considers them to be inferior and underrepresented in all spheres of life. The event was packed with international delegates who were enthusiastic about the campaign’s subject, which was given by Watson, and which intended to raise the economic and social status of women around the world. Watson was the keynote speaker.
Her address focused on raising awareness throughout the world about the significance of gender equity and providing opportunities for females to demonstrate their strengths in their social and economic roles. Watson’s speech was broadcast live on BBC World Service. As Watson points out in her address, providing women with the opportunity to enjoy the same rights as men would relieve men’s burdens in the home and in society as a whole, because authority and obligations would be shared across all genders, as Watson argues. As provided in the text “Gender in Communication,” this event clearly highlights gender prejudices that are primarily encountered by women in today’s society. intimidation, emotional and physical abuse, verbal abuse, and sexual assault are all forms of gender violence experienced by women, as are disadvantages linked with their gender, such as low pay and discrimination in decision-making and involvement in development (Palczewski, Defrancisco, & McGeough).
The subject of sexual abuse and harassment has been brought to the forefront, and women are being denied the right to make decisions about their bodies as a result. Also addressed in the speech, with facts provided to demonstrate how a substantial percentage of girls, particularly in Africa and industrialized countries, are forced into early marriage and sexual assault as a result of social and economic pressures It is undeniable that a substantial proportion of females do not have the same opportunities for quality education as their male counterparts as a result of social norms that place a high importance on educating boys. Watson asserts that the only way to fix this problem is for the entire society to be liberated in order for everyone to feel a sense of belonging to the society, hence allowing collective growth in all aspects of life. As a result of good and responsible people’s failure to act on this issue, gender imbalance and inequality have developed. As Albert Einstein once said, “all that is required for the forces of evil to triumph is for the good men and women to do nothing.”
The most crucial aspect of this event was that the message was delivered in a clear and relevant manner to everyone in the audience as well as the rest of the world. It was intended to be inclusive of all, with males being challenged on their role in promoting and preserving gender parity in order to eliminate the existing biases and discrimination in today’s society. I believe that the event depleted all of the resources available to make the world a better place for everyone and to enable equal representation in social and economic progress.

Reference
C. H. Palczewski, V. P. Defrancisco, and D. D. McGeough have published a paper in which they argue that (n.d.). An introduction to the topic of gender in communication (3rd ed.).

Define the following Terms: Mainstreaming

The following vocabulary and concepts are very important to understand the readings and assignments for this class. Type your answers for A and B (B in your own words) by clicking below on the item for submission:

A. Define the following Terms:

1). Mainstreaming

2). Full Inclusion

3). Partial Inclusion

4). Regular education initiative

5). Cooperative learning

6). Early intervention

7). Intensive Care Specialist

8). Individualized Family Service Plan

9). IEP (Individualized Education Program)

10). Differentiated Instruction

11). Adaptive Instruction

B. Why is it important for students with disabilities to receive instruction in self-determination, academics, adaptive, functional life skills, and employment preparation during the secondary school years? (a minimum of two paragraphs)

Assignment 1

Operationally Define supervision in Behavior analysis.
Are you interested in becoming a behavior analyst? Why / Why not?
Provide your rational for the type of behavior analysis you would like to do.
What determines supervisor competence? (Use the 2 Articles to support your position).
APA writing standards and No more than 2 pages