PHIL 222 Bryant Stratton Wk 5 Reproductive Issues Health Human Services Ethics

PHIL 222 BRW 5 Reproductive Issues Health Care Ethics Essay

Question:
Can you explain this Psychology question?

PART 1

This week we studied about various reproductive concerns and professional settings. We will explore the Safe Haven Law.

Examine the Safe Haven Law and its implications. After reviewing the Safe Haven Law, write a blog post explaining your perspective. Use the Virtual Library to find a source that supports your point of view. Please cite your sources in APA format.

Reply to 3 of your peers with intelligent posts that add to the topic.

Proofread for accurate grammar and spelling.

Pt. 2

This week we discussed reproductive difficulties and the solutions available to clients/patients in and out of the hospital setting. Your personal morals and ethics may effect judgments you have to make when delivering reproductive services, based on what you learned and discussed this week. Assess your ability to separate your own feelings from your ethical duty as a healthcare provider.

phil222 week 5 lectu

Proofread your work. Dependence on your computer’s spell- and grammar-checker implies a lack of effort on your behalf, and your grade will suffer accordingly. Mispelled words and grammatical errors will be fined. Before submitting your paper, read it aloud and in silence, making any required adjustments. It helps to have a buddy proofread your writing for obvious mistakes. Handwritten corrections beat uncorrected errors.

Use a 10-12 point typeface (10-12 characters per inch). Smaller type, narrow margins, and single-spaced articles are difficult to read. It is best to let your essay go above the recommended page count than to attempt and squeeze it in.

Increased leading (space between lines), kerning (space between letters) and any other such attempts to “padding” a paper are improper, waste trees, and will not trick your professor.

The paper must be double-spaced with a one-inch margin on all sides. If submitting a hard copy, utilize white paper and dark ink. Reading your essay will make it difficult to follow your reasoning.

CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONS

Discussion Points (DQ)

Initial DQ submissions should address all aspects of the questions, contain one scholarly source, and be 250 words or less.

Sufficiently developed ideas and at least one scholarly source are required for successful responses.

Responses of one or two sentences, simple agreement or “good post,” and off-topic responses will not count as substantive. Responses should be at least 150 words long.

I invite you to use the week’s readings in your comments.

Weekly Engagement

Your initial responses to the obligatory DQ are not included in your participation grade.

You must also react to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.

No scholarly source/citation is required unless you cite someone else’s work.

Your weekly participation includes watching the weekly announcement and commenting on it. These reminders are meant to make sure you know what’s due each day.

APA Style and Writing

Learn and practice the APA format. It is utilized for most degree writing tasks. For APA paper templates, citation examples, and recommendations, visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center in LoudCloud. Points will be reduced for bad APA formatting or lack thereof (if required).

Cite all sources! Remember to cite sources. Paraphrasing necessitates citing.

I highly recommend the 6th edition APA Publication Manual.

Direct Quotes

I penalize overuse of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters level.

It is crucial for Masters students to be able to critically assess and interpret information from journals and other sources. Simply repeating someone else’s words does not show comprehension or critical analysis of the topic.

Paraphrase text and cite sources.

LopesWrite Terms

Please wait until you obtain your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage before submitting your assignments to LopesWrite.

Please review your report once received. This report will show you easy-to-fix grammar, punctuation, and spelling mistakes. Take a few more minutes to review instead of being penalized.

Examine your resembl Did you forget to cite? Did you not paraphrase? Is your article dominated by someone else’s ideas?

Visit the Student Success Center’s Writing Center under the Resources option in LoudCloud for writing tips.

Late Law

The institution penalizes late assignments by 10% per day. This includes late DQ answers.

If you anticipate submitting an assignment late, please notify me. I am happy to be flexible if notified. Extenuating circumstances may allow us to extend the deadline.

If you don’t contact me before submitting a late assignment, the GCU late policy applies.

Unless we have agreed on an extension, I will not accept assignments two weeks late.

No assignments are accepted after the last class day. No assignment submitted after midnight on the last class day will be graded.

Communication

Communication is vital. You can contact me in several ways:

This is a fantastic location to ask questions about the course topic or assignments. If you have a question, chances are one of your peers does too. This is a class forum.

This is a private forum to ask questions or leave remarks. It will be checked every 24 hours.
PHIL 222 Bryant Stratton Wk 5 Reproductive Issues Health Human Services Ethics Essay

Question Description
Can you help me understand this Psychology question?

PART ONE

This week, we have learned about different types of reproductive issues and the situations you may face as a professional. For our discussion will consider the Safe Haven Law.

Research the Safe Haven Law and the issues surrounding it. After researching the Safe Haven Law, write a post outlining your position on this ethical issue. Find a source in the Virtual Library, or a news report or case study on the internet that supports your point of view. Please provide the citation of your source in APA format.

Respond to 3 of your peers with thoughtful posts which add interest and information to the discussion.

Proofread for proper English and spelling and grammar.

PART 2

This week we focused our attention on reproductive issues and the variety of options that may be open to clients/patients both in and out of healthcare settings. Based on what you learned and discussed this week, how do you feel your personal morals and ethics might impact decisions you may have to make when it comes to providing reproductive services? Assess your ability to separate your personal feelings from your ethical obligations as a healthcare provider and support your assessment using ethical theory.

phil222___week_5_lectu

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.

Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.

One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.

I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.

In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.

Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).

Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).

Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.

I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.

As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.

It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

1148 Words

Paraphrase
PHIL 222 Bryant Stratton Wk 5 Reproductive Issues Health Human Services Ethics Essay

Question:
Can you explain this Psychology question?

PART ONE

This week, we have learned about different types of reproductive issues and the situations you may face as a professional. For our discussion will consider the Safe Haven Law.

Research the Safe Haven Law and the issues surrounding it. After researching the Safe Haven Law, write a post outlining your position on this ethical issue. Find a source in the Virtual Library, or a news report or case study on the internet that supports your point of view. Please provide the citation of your source in APA format.

Respond to 3 of your peers with thoughtful posts which add interest and information to the discussion.

Proofread for proper English and spelling and grammar.

PART 2

This week we focused our attention on reproductive issues and the variety of options that may be open to clients/patients both in and out of healthcare settings. Based on what you learned and discussed this week, how do you feel your personal morals and ethics might impact decisions you may have to make when it comes to providing reproductive services? Assess your ability to separate your personal feelings from your ethical obligations as a healthcare provider and support your assessment using ethical theory.

phil222___week_5_lectu

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.

Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.

One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.

I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.

In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.

Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).

Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).

Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.

I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.

As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.

It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
2/86 Paraphrased

A 65-year-old male presents to the emergency department

Health – cardiology – coronary artery syndrome manegment
A 65-year-old male presents to the emergency department with a three-hour history of progressively worsening central chest pain. The pain radiates down his left arm and into his jaw. He rates it ten out of ten in severity and is associated with nausea. On examination, he is tachycardic, obviously diaphoretic and has a blood pressure of 145/85mmHg. He is a current smoker and works as a taxi driver.

(1)State the most likely diagnosis in this case and list five other potential differential diagnoses

((((( the right diagnosis according to the lecture is cornoray artery disease and say why according to the notes provided and list 5 more that have similer signs and symptoms that could be)

2)Outline the investigations that should be performed as part of the evaluation of a patient presenting with chest pain. Provide a rationale for EACH investigation. ( dont forget the last part)

(3 )Explain the steps involved in the acute management of the patients’ presentation. As part of your answer, you should include TWO medications which will be continued on discharge (including mechanism of action and side effects)

.maximum 500 word – please use 6-7 very good ( ncbi – pubmed ) only references – no repetition of the same thing very clear well explained answer – university uses software to spot copying from articles and websites so please use ur own clear word – VANCOVER numbering referencing style -ask me anything if you need clarifaication – Firstly find the answer in the note privided ( important ) then find a source that support the answer
—-
A 65-year-old man goes to the ED with three hours of escalating central chest discomfort. His left arm and mouth ache. It’s ten out of ten in severity and causes nausea. On examination, he is tachycardic, diaphoretic, and has a 145/85mmHg blood pressure. He smokes and drives a taxi.

Give the most likely diagnosis and five alternative possible differential diagnoses.

(( ( the right diagnosis according to the lecture is cornoray artery disease and say why according to the notes provided and list 5 more that have similer signs and symptoms that could be)

2)Outline the investigations to be performed on a patient with chest discomfort. Justify EACH inquiry. (Don’t forget the end)

(3) Describe the stages involved in the patient’s acute care. Include TWO drugs that will be continued after discharge in your answer (including mechanism of action and side effects)

.limit 500 words – 6-7 excellent ( ncbi – pubmed ) The university utilizes tools to detect plagiarism from papers and websites, so please use your own clear word. Find the solution in the note provided ( crucial ) then find a source that supports the answer.

How useful are personality profiles?

How useful are personality profiles?

If you haven’t taken an abnormal psychology course, you may not be familiar with Carl Jung and his work. This week we will read about his theory of archetypes and the collective unconscious. If you’d like a bit of a primer, peruse this page .

In this discussion post, I’d like you to think about Jungian archetypes and about the Meyer-Briggs test (which is based on Jung’s theory). The Meyer-Briggs test*, it turns out, it is totally useless . However, personality “types” intrigue us. Like a good horoscope, it can create feelings of certainty, soothe anxiety about the future, and create greater understanding of self and others.

In this post, first state which Jungian archetype you most closely associate with or you can talk about your Meyer-Brigg indicator (I’m an INTJ, lol). Either way describe your archetype or indicator type. Second, discuss whether you think these personality types are useful/beneficial or useless/harmful. Please explain/defend your position.

Please respond to at least one other student’s post in a respectful manner.

*By the way, not all personality models are empirically corrupt. The HEXACO model (based on the big five) is a valid measure that can predict behavior and is used by several companies in their job selection process.

this page .

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jungian_archetypes#:~:text=In%20Jungian%20psychology%2C%20archetypes%20are,and%20Arthur%20Schopenhauer’s%20prototypes.

Jungian archetypes

ps://conorneill.com/2018/04/21/understanding-personality-the-12-jungian-archetypes/

Meyer-Briggs test

https://www.16personalities.com/personality-types

it is totally useless

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/give-and-take/201309/goodbye-mbti-the-fad-won-t-die

The HEXACO model

https://hexaco.org/

Philosophy and Socrates

Philosophy and Socrates
Socrates is arguably one of the founding fathers of philosophy in the Western world. Later philosophers such as Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle, among others, were influenced by his ideas and teachings. It is worth noting, however, that he was a controversial character who left no written record of his thoughts or teachings. As a result, much of what we know about him comes from later thinkers who were enthusiastic supporters of his views. If you’re a philosophy student, you might be asked to write a paper about Socrates and philosophy. You must illustrate how this prominent Greek, who was born in Athens, was able to impact the thinking of his period when writing such a thesis. His skepticism was crucial because it caused him to examine the values and ethics of his period. As a result, he broke with the tradition of mindlessly following the state’s and religious institutions’ varied norms and customs. Our philosophy and Socrates paper writers can help you with this type of academic work.
In relation to your Socrates and philosophy paper, the Socratic issue
Your Socrates paper, like other sorts of philosophy papers, should include a clear thesis statement. This statement should help you figure out what kind of information you should include in it. It is critical to emphasize that you comprehend the Socratic problem while hunting for such information. In other words, you should be aware that the historical Socrates is controversial because he did not leave a written account of his views or life. To retain accurate records, philosophers and historians try to comprehend his character from his contemporaries, who may or may not have been philosophers or historians. When you acquire our Socrates and philosophy writing services, we will show you how to defend your work utilizing a variety of classical and contemporary philosophical writing.
A well-organized Socrates and philosophy paper is required.
A good philosophical work should follow a logical structure. This means you must use all of the evidence accessible to persuade the reader to agree with your thesis statement. Before submitting it for marking, you must additionally proofread it. We are here to help you write a high-quality philosophy paper right now. All you have to do now is contact us if you want to benefit from our Socrates and philosophy writing support.

Existentialism of Kierkegaard and Sartre Philosophy

Existentialism of Kierkegaard and Sartre Philosophy
Kierkegaard’s and Sartre’s existentialist theories Philosophy
Existentialism, like any other philosophy, is difficult to categorize and define. And, as a result of the numerous unclear and contradictory definitions, the term has become a widespread term in current philosophical discourse. Existentialism, according to the most frequently accepted definition, is a philosophical philosophy that places greater emphasis on human existence than on human essence. It is also referred to as the philosophy of existence in some circles.
Between the years 1813 and 1855, the Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard pioneered the concept of existentialist philosophy. Kierkegaard was widely regarded as the founder of the existentialism movement and was well-known for his intense interest in the nature of the relationship between man and his creator. The relationship, according to him, was ultimately unattainable because of the finite nature of man and the infinite and absolute nature of God. Kierkegaard was a staunch opponent of Christendom, but he was not a believer in Christianity. In later years, following the end of World War II, the word gained in prominence, piqued the interest of many notable philosophers of the twentieth century, including Jean-Paul Sartre.
Existentialists can be divided into two categories: Christian existentialists and atheistic existentialists. Krkegaard is credited as being the originator of theistic Existentialism, which holds that God is the supreme reality. As a theistic existentialist, Kierkegaard and several subsequent theistic existentialists viewed God to be the ultimate reality. God, according to Kierkegaard, is the only subjective and supreme being in the universe. His primary interest was in the manner in which people articulated their genuine Christian beliefs. Christian doctrine, he maintained, had been reduced to a set of rules that placed an emphasis on conformity rather than self-reflection. He believed that authentic Christianity includes acknowledging and embracing the truth of God, and he advocated for that position. Kierkegaard, on the other hand, was adamantly opposed to the notion of God as a being who expresses himself through mankind and nature.
In contrast, Atheistic Existentialism considers Being-in-itself as the source of all knowledge. One of the most famous atheist externalists of the twentieth century, Sartre was adamantly opposed to the concept of God. Sartre maintained in his book that God did not exist and, as a result, could not have established the concept of being-in-itself. According to him, nothing could have created being-in-itself because it had never been made in the first place. According to him, a man starts out as nothing and only then progresses to being something. Man is therefore responsible for defining his existence via his goals and deeds, and he can only live to the extent that he achieves the greatest amount of personal fulfillment.
In their philosophy, existentialists emphasize the fact that humans exist, the freedom they have to choose, the purpose they have in life, the effort they put forth to make reasonable judgments, and the willingness to accept the consequences of their actions. Atheistic externalists are primarily concerned with questions of human existence, and they are united in their opinion that existence comes before essence. Christianity’s existentialists, on the other hand, believe and respect the existence of God, and they believe that the only way to find purpose in life is to accept and embrace his existence.

Descartes’ Epistemology

Descartes’ Epistemology
The Epistemology of Descartes
René Descartes is generally referred to as “the father of contemporary philosophy,” a moniker that he has earned over the years. Descartes was a jack of all crafts who made substantial contributions in a variety of fields, including mathematics and physics. He also made intellectual contributions to the theory of the origin of knowledge, which he called “the origin of knowledge hypothesis.” The philosophy of Descartes’ approach to the theory of knowledge has had a considerable impact on both early modern and contemporary philosophy. His method has continued to play a significant role in how challenges in contemporary epistemology are perceived and conceptualized in the years since his death.
Meditations on First Philosophy is one of Descartes’ famous writings, in which he lays out some of his philosophical concepts and arguments in greater detail than any other work. In addition to philosophical problems about knowledge, self and mind in connection to the body, perception, and whether or not God exists, it also examines a variety of other topics. Descartes was critical of the scholastic approach, claiming that it was prone to doubt as a result of its reliance on sense as the primary source of knowledge. The causal paradigm of scientific explanation was also considered defective, and he sought to remedy this by the use of a more modern and mechanical method.
The method of skepticism
Using the scholastic’s technique, Descartes attempted to address the reliance on sense as the source of knowledge in his theory of doubt. Descartes begins by presenting perfect source knowledge in terms of uncertainty, which is the starting point of his approach. To his way of thinking, every notion or conviction that causes us to have even the slightest sliver of doubt should be dismissed as erroneous. Perfect knowledge is built on complete assurance, leaving no opportunity for any kind of uncertainty.
Descartes also proves that his views are unassailable and, as a result, are certain and true in his own mind. Whenever we believe that we have correctly conceptualized something, we become instinctively convinced that it is correct. And if our belief is strong enough, we will never have to question what we have come to believe in. As a result, “I am” and “I exist,” according to Descartes, are true each and every time he says them for as long as he has a conception of them. This holds true even when one is dreaming or when one is fooled by an evil demon or even by God himself! Where there are thoughts, those thoughts and the thinker both exist in truth, regardless of whether the concepts are contained within a falsehood.
As a direct contrast to the concept of certainty, Descartes placed a great deal of emphasis on the concept of doubt. When a result, as the level of uncertainty increases, the level of certainty increases, and vice versa. His most important criteria is that knowledge should only be based on the complete lack of any doubt whatsoever. Descartes’ methodical approach, which placed emphasis on uncertainty rather than certainty, set the tone for epistemological innovation to follow.