Criminal Justice Punishment is the application of a penalty

Criminal Justice Punishment is the application of a penalty
JUSTICE IN CRIMINAL MATTER
Student’s name, school affiliation, and course date are all required.
Justice in the Criminal Courts
Punishment is the imposition of a penalty on an individual by a government authority in response to a wrongdoing. Punishment is intended to defend social norms, protect society from harm, maintain the rule of law, and enforce social conformity, but it is primarily intended to modify the behavior of the individual. There are various types of punishments available depending on the jurisdiction of the rule of law that governs the specific social group in question and the severity of the crime that was perpetrated (Berk,2016). Depending on the social setting, punishment may be implied informally, or it may be implied formally in accordance with the systemic rule of law (see Figure 1). An enormous amount of investigation and study has been conducted, all with the goal of determining whether or not punishment is more effective than prevention and reward in achieving desired outcomes. This essay examines the use of electrical shocks as a form of corporal punishment, as well as the physical pain that they cause an individual.
The effects of corporal punishment on the modification of behavior have only received a cursory investigation in modern science. It has placed a strong emphasis on the consequences of rewards. The concept of corporal punishment has a negative connotation in contemporary society. Human rights activists have strongly condemned the use of corporal punishment, and psychologists have provided explanations for why it is used. All of this has been done in the hope of putting an end to this form of punishment. One question that has lingered in their minds is whether it is appropriate for a man to subject another to pain and suffering while upholding this under the principle of justice is appropriate.
It is possible to find an answer to this question in the penal law of Christianity or in the simple law of physics, which states that action equals reaction and that they both move in the opposite direction. All forms of nature, including humans, appear to be governed by this law, which appears to uphold punishment as an effective means of protecting society from the worst of human nature. Most governments around the world have their own penal codes, which primarily dictate that an offender be imprisoned, an act that seeks to debar punishment rather than to enforce it. The word “prison” originally referred to a place where offenders were detained indefinitely pending trial and hearing. Prisons played a less significant role in achieving criminal justice goals. Prison as a substitute for other forms of corporal punishment has had a negative impact on the government’s finances because the burden is being passed on to citizens through taxes. It has also had a negative impact on offenders because they are being excluded from opportunities and profitable economic activities as a result of the move.
Corporal punishment should be reinstated, according to law enforcement officials and the majority of the general public. The punishment of offenders will deter other men from committing similar offenses in the future. The pain experienced hurts the body and is inclined to the soul, which brings the offense committed into disrepute. We have seen numerous instances of people being fined only to find out later that they were involved in other crimes. This is due to the fact that the current criminal justice system appears to be more lenient, and as a result, people are less afraid to commit crimes.
Pain can be classified into two types: acute pain, which is temporary and less severe physical pain, and chronic pain, which is long-term and more severe physical pain. Acute pain can be used for both violent and property crimes, depending on the circumstances. It can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but the most advantageous, appropriate, and equitable method is the application of electric shock. The intensity and timing of the shock can be adjusted to match the severity of the crime committed, and it does not necessitate the removal of people from their social and natural environments, nor does it necessitate their confinement in one location and the suffering of their families. It also saves the government money and alleviates overcrowding in prisons, which are both positive outcomes.
Questions arise when comparing acute and chronic pain, such as which offenders should be punished with acute pain and which should be punished with chronic pain. The analogy necessitated the adoption of a reform proposal as a result of the comparison. According to Newman, the proposal seeks to distinguish between crimes and criminals, and it proposes chronic pain for heinous and repeat offenders, which includes both physical pain and imprisonment. At the same time, minor offenses should be subjected to severe punishment. It is necessary, however, to distinguish corporal punishment from torture, because the latter is illegal and constitutes a grave violation of even criminals’ rights, as well as their own. Because corporal punishment does not cause long-term harm to the body, it cannot be classified as torture under international law.
Once upon a time, a well-known London judge argued that long sentences of imprisonment did little to alter the behavior of criminals. In fact, the violent nature of prisons encouraged inmates to engage in worse behavior, whereas hardcore criminals felt right at home in prison. The idleness and monotony of prison will drag behind the hardworking inmates, while the hardened ones will join organized gangs to make a living. In terms of rehabilitating inmates, incarceration is extremely ineffective. The “rod,” on the other hand, is something that every man dreads. Whether it is whipping or the application of electrical shock, it has an intrinsic and logical repercussion on the person who has done wrong, making him better than worse. Because of this, pain is an essential component of effective punishment and the deterrent effect of punishment.
Towards the end of the 18th century, both the United States and Great Britain had incorporated corporal punishment into the process of prosecuting criminals. The United States later abolished it as a result of a congressional act, but the United Kingdom continued to uphold it. Following the introduction of the whip in Maryland in 1882, there was a significant decrease in the number of cases of domestic violence. The number of reported cases of domestic violence had been increasing, prompting the authorities to institute the whip. In a year, the number of cases involving the implementation of laws dropped by more than half, and the number of cases eventually dwindled (Bach,2017). The modifications demonstrate how men dread the whip. It causes a convict much social degrading treatment when he is publicly flogged, as well as physical pain, which is far worse than imprisonment.
While the concept of imprisonment should not be dismissed out of hand, it is necessary to consider the consequences of both. As a result, offenders who commit petty crimes should not be incarcerated alongside repeat or hardcore criminals due to a lack of bail. The use of electric shocks has proven to be the most effective method of punishing such crimes time and time again. Technicians can adjust the intensity of these shocks to inflict pain on an offender while preventing permanent damage to their body. Preventative measures such as probation are ineffective, particularly for the offended groups and individuals, and they do nothing to demonstrate that justice has been carried out. Bail would be ineffective in preventing the repetition of offenses, but the pain would be just as potent a deterrent.

While pain communicates to the offender the nature of his or her wrongdoing, prison only serves to demonstrate the seriousness of the crimes committed (Hyatt, 2015). Crimes that cause only minor harm to the offender should be met with swift and severe punishment. However, serious crimes should be punished equally and with long-term consequences such as pain and imprisonment to ensure that the offender suffers the same amount of pain and suffering that was caused by his or her actions on the part of the victim.
With the advancement of human civilization and modernization, there have been an increasing number of oppositions to corporal punishment in recent years (Mazur,2013). Some claim it is too painful, while others simply object to it on the grounds that it causes bodily harm to the person who committed the crime. These arguments raise two points of contention: the severity of the punishment and the method of punishment. It is important to note that focusing solely on the extreme when attempting to object to or justify corporal punishment can be deceptive and misleading. As an example, consider a situation in which someone is electrically shocked, resulting in severe or permanent bodily harm. We would be ignoring the question of whether or not less severe corporal punishment can be justified in certain circumstances. It is also important to consider which offenses are punishable under the law. Examples include the punishment of 1,000 lashes of the whip meted out by the Saudi Arabian government to a blogger who expressed himself as a human rights activist on his blog (Hamilton,2016). This punishment was severe and unconstitutional because it infringed on the blogger’s right to freedom of expression.
In the final analysis, corporal punishment has a number of advantages over incarceration in terms of time and financial impact. Incarceration is an expensive affair that costs an estimated $ 30,000 per year for a single inmate. This fiscal burden on the government is passed on to citizens through taxes. It is also time-consuming since every inmate has to serve their sentence. Corporal punishment is cheap and takes less time. As much as cost is not a priority in determining the punishment method, the capital involved could be used for better projects; hence, it is an essential factor to consider.
Prison is not enough to bring out the desired results since most of this correctional lack plan and purpose. It is destructive and degrades our values since it does not reflect our accurate degree of civilization. There is a need for a well-outlined legal framework that will guide us in deciding which cases require incarceration and which ones can be sentenced for corporal punishment to prevent prisons from being overwhelmed and help in meting fair punishment to the incarcerated ones and rehabilitate them to future good citizens. Punishment is aimed at reducing the crime rate, but our prisons have not achieved that today. They have lacked target in crime control by relying on the incapacitation theory, which states that criminals should be incarcerated for crimes they would have committed in the future.
There have been numerous arguments globally on this topic. The vast majority are the ones who object to corporal punishment as compared to imprisonment or incarceration. However, their objections are negligible since they are one-sided and focus on the extremes. For example, those who term corporal punishment as violent and vicious fail to realize that prisons are much worse in this. Once an offender is incarcerated, they are exposed to such vices aforementioned while in reality; corporal punishment is carried out per the rule of law. Public opinion has played a significant role in this. If only we were to stand with the altruistic position that the duty to educate the naïve and reform the ferocious relies on the right to punish.
In conclusion, our criminal justice system needs to be reviewed. Theory needs to be compared with experience, perceptions with facts. In reducing overcrowding and making prisons effective in the administration of just punishment and rehabilitation, there is a need to re-introduce corporal punishment in our criminal justice. Since time immemorial, it has proved to be effective in serving justice to the offended. At the same time, to the offender, it is a sure way to inflict pain according to the degree of crime committed, thus preventing a future repetition of the same offenses and amend their misdeed. It is essential to be open-minded in the process not to miss any mark or go overboard in reinstating the same. There are laws and statutes as well as amendments that can offer proper guidance in achieving this.

References
Mazur, J. E. (2013). Learning and behavior (7th ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press
Berk, R. A. 2016b. “A Primer on Fairness in Criminal Justice Risk Assessments.” The Criminologist 4
Hyatt, J.. 2015. “Machine Learning Forecasts of Risk to Inform Sentencing Decisions.” The Federal Sentencing Reporter 27(4):222–228.
Hamilton, M. 2016. “Risk-needs Assessment: Constitutional and Ethical Challenges.” American Criminal Law Review 52(2):231–292.
Bach, D. R. (2017). The cognitive architecture of anxiety-like behavioral inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(1), 18-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000282

Understanding Perspectives of Criminology

CRIM 2650 2020-2021
WINTER TERM THEORY PAPER INSTRUCTIONS
Examine the following reports about Temporary Foreign Workers in Canada from the lenses of
A) Marxist Criminology B) Feminist Criminology C) Intersectional Criminology:
• MWAC (2020) “Unheeded Warnings: COVID-19 and Migrant Workers”, The Migrant
Worker’s Alliance for Change, https://migrantworkersalliance.org/wp-
content/uploads/2020/06/Unheeded-Warnings-COVID19-and-Migrant-Workers.pdf
o See also the CBC coverage of the report: Harris, K (2020) “Exploitation, abuse,
health hazards rise for migrant workers during COVID-19, group says” CBC News,
8 June, https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/migrant-workers-farm-deaths-report-
1.5602596
• Weiler, A., & Cohen, A. (2018). Migrant farm workers vulnerable to sexual violence. The
Conversation, May 1. https://theconversation.com/migrant-farm-workers-vulnerable-
to-sexual-violence-95839
This assignment is designed to assess the following skills:
• The ability to do close readings of the theoretical texts
• The ability to put theoretical perspectives in conversation with one another
• The ability to pinpoint the strengths and limitations of theories
Writing Tips. & Formatting Instructions
• Treat these reports as if they were parts of a single large report about the Temporary
Foreign Workers in Canada.
• You can draw sections from the CBC Coverage of the MWAC report. However, please
make sure that you primarily use the main report.
• Apply the main concepts and themes of the theories to analyze the relevant empirical
issues in the reports.
• Try to pinpoint the strengths and limitations of theories in explaining specific issues in
the reports, and try to put them in dialogue.
o For instance, explain which elements in the reports can be adequately explained
by Marxist Criminology (by which Marxist concepts/themes), which may not be
fully or adequately explained by Marxist Criminology (explain why), and state
which other theory (e.g. Feminist or Intersectional Criminology) can better
explain those elements. Follow the same format also for Feminist Criminology
and Intersectional Criminology.
• Spend no more than 1-2 sentences summarizing the contents of the reports. The rest of
the assignment should be your analysis of the reports.
• Your paper should be 5-7 pages (excluding bibliography). Writing within these tight page
constraints requires that you write as succinctly and as concisely as possible. This might
require several drafts.
• Please follow the formatting instructions in your syllabus.
• Please organize your paper in essay format and cite appropriate course material.
• Your paper will be marked on content and style.
• You can use lecture notes. However, please provide citation if you do. Lecture notes
include both PowerPoint slides and everything the Professor says in the lecture.
• Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Please see the Academic Integrity Checklist
before submitting your essay:
http://www.yorku.ca/spark/academic_integrity/Academic%20Integrity%20Checklist.pdf
• This is not a group assignment. Please work individually. If you are caught submitting
similar papers or plagiarizing, you will fail this course and you will be charged with
plagiarism.
• If you are planning to submit a reading entry for the intersectionality week, your reading
entry should be on a topic other than temporary foreign workers in Canada.
Submission Instructions
• Please upload the electronic copy of your assignment to Turnitin on eClass by February
25, 2021 at 10PM. Assignments that are submitted after this date will be considered
late. Please read the “Late Policy” section in your course syllabus.

UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVES OF CRIMINOLOGY
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Understanding Perspectives of Criminology
Several available criminology theories do not fully explain the delinquencies and the abnormal behaviours of girls. In many of these significant theories, there is a degree of bias focused on males concerning misbehaviours. Due to the several evidence available in offending women and girls, there is a need for the model of women liberations to explore women delinquency. Many of the relationships and victimization between female crimes and the experiences have been ignored in the public institutions that offer justice. These institutions mainly focus more on disadvantaged males. Similarly, the role played by the child justice system in the female delinquency sexualization, and illegalization of the survival strategies of women have been missed. The juvenile action systems must be understood to be the primary reasons girls and women undergo oppression. They have used these actions from juvenile justice systems to strengthen the obedience of the young ladies to the patriarchal authority demand regardless of how arbitrary and abusive. Several immigrant women undergo oppression mainly because of race and gender discrimination.
Many immigrant women from Mexico working through (SWAP) Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program in Canada has filed reports against their bosses sexually assaulting them. For instance, Terresa, a single mother from Mexico, California, who has been working with the SWAP program, filed a report of sexual assault to the justice systems (Weiler & Cohen, 2018, 1). The incident occurred one day when Terresa’s male co-workers were sent to work on another farm. They were left only two of them (her and another female worker). The boss sexually assaulted her and wanted to give her some cash to buy her silence. When the matter reached the judge, the case was dismissed. The judged claimed that there is no enough evidence. Several women working under the SWAP programs have been assaulted sexually but fear reporting the matter since no serious actions will be taken on the accused, and therefore, they run a risk of losing their jobs. Terresa was afraid that her reporting the matter may hurt her together with her female co-worker (Weiler & Cohen, 2018, 3). The male bosses in these farms use their positions to harass the female workers sexually, and they are not punished. Therefore, the rule should be developed to protect all females against these kinds of assaults. The assaults may arise due to gender or race. The law will act as an intersectional approach that guides judges on how to offer justice due to interconnected cases such as abuse due to race and gender. Intersectional criminology is a theoretic method that imposes reflection on the effect of interconnected statuses and identities of groups and individuals with respect to their social crime control, experience with crime, and any issues related to crime. The process is called demarginalization of the intersection of sex and race.
Many immigrant women from Mexico who are employed through the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SWAP) in Canada have filed complaints against their supervisors for sexual harassment and assault. For example, Terresa, a single mother from Mexico, California, who has been working with the SWAP program, has filed a report of sexual assault with the appropriate authorities and agencies (Weiler & Cohen, 2018, 1). Terresa’s male co-workers were transferred to another farm one day, and the incident occurred as a result of their transfer. There were only two of them left in the group (her and another female worker). Her boss had sexually assaulted her and desired to purchase her silence with a large sum of money. When the case reached the courtroom, the judge ruled that it should be dismissed. The judge asserted that there is insufficient evidence to proceed. Several women employed by the SWAP programs have been sexually assaulted, but they are afraid to report the incident because they believe no serious action will be taken against the perpetrators, and as a result, they run the risk of losing their jobs. Terresa was concerned that reporting the incident would result in her and her female co-worker being victimized (Weiler & Cohen, 2018, 3). The male bosses on these farms take advantage of their positions to sexually harass the female workers, and they are not held accountable. Because of this, legislation should be drafted to protect all females from these types of assaults. Gender or race discrimination may be a factor in the assaults. The law will serve as an intersectional approach that will guide judges on how to provide justice in cases that are interconnected, such as abuse that is based on race and gender identity. When it comes to social crime control, experience with crime, and any other issues related to crime, intersectional criminology is a theoretical method that requires reflection on the effect of interconnected statuses and identities of groups and individuals in relation to their social crime control, experience with crime, and any other issues related to crime. The process of demarginalization of the intersection of sex and race is referred to as demarginalization of the intersection of sex and race.
Furthermore, the immigrant workers in Canada undergo oppression, mistreatment, and discrimination because of race. The associations fighting for migrant works in Canada receive complaints from several workers on different issues, such as working in crowded conditions during COVOD 19 period (MWAC, 2020, 2). The working conditions did not allow for physical distancing. The workers also complained of lack of access to protective equipment and lack of access to appropriate hygienic food and diet during the quarantine. The poor and unhygienic working conditions led to the deaths of two migrant men. Similarly, over a hundred workers have also been infected with the virus. The working conditions of the migrants is deplorable and unfavourable compared to those of the Canadian citizens. The migrants are neglected and ignored just because they are not from Canada. They are provided with minimal wages. Their minimal salaries cannot allow them to access proper protective equipment and adequate meals. Sometimes women may undergo oppression and suffering because they are from a different race. They receive oppression and suffering similar to those of men of the same race. Whereas, sometime they may undergo oppression because of their gender, for instance, sexual assaults. In this case, the migrant female workers may suffer in the same way the female citizens are suffering (Potter, 2015, 308). The type of oppression and assaults female workers undergo can be attributed to intersectional criminology. Women can be assaulted due to gender and race.
Moreover, poor working conditions, low payments, and mistreatment at work may drive a person towards being a criminal. Engel and Marx explain one can develop immoral behaviors and criminality (Weis, 2017, 15). They state that immoral behaviour is adopted and raised by the circumstances of the working class’s life. When the worker is poor, they are denied all the working-class pleasures, and they think life has nothing to offer them (Weis, 2017, 15). With all these feelings, the worker may get themselves in the wrong way as they may try to join the criminal world to satisfy their needs. The workers at this point do not fear the consequences of their actions and the penalties that the low may bring on them. Because of the working condition, they stop restraining their wicked desires and tries to take anything they may find. The poor and low payment gives them a reason to steal as they take part of their employer’s property for themselves. Sorrow and suffering due to poverty provide them with limited choices (Harris, 2020, 10). The choices are either to kill themselves quickly, starve slowly, or to take anything they need where they find it. The majority always go for the last option, which is to steal instead of starving to death. Marx and Engels give an apparent reason why some working people may prefer getting into a criminal world instead of starving to death as they work in a low environment with limited wages.
The most evident indication of the emancipated worker’s disapproval of the available social order is how they break the law. Currently, there are several working-class individuals that have turned into criminals. When the workers are demoralized to a particular point, they will naturally turn into criminals. For instance, a banker who handles money on a daily basis yet is underpaid is more likely to turn into a criminal. The banker may decide to steal part of the funds he handles to satisfy his personal needs and lifestyle. It is challenging for the banker to withstand the stealing urge if he does not have enough income to take care of himself. Considering how workers are treated by their masters or employers, they will lose all the good intentions they had, and they will be forced to blindly follow the laws of nature. This is the time when the employee has no power to withstand the stealing temptation. Subsequently, the crime incidences have raised due to the growth of the population of the working class. The number of individuals taken to trial in the whole world has considerably increased in the current years. The increase rate may be due to the high level of education, which increases the number of workers. Similarly, the workers will be employed at a lower salary because of the increased competition levels (Weis, 2017, 10). Therefore, criminal punishments should be given depending on whether an individual may be working class or not.
Besides, females in the current world may give in to sexual assaults because of the competition in workplaces. The boss may promise to offer the woman job in exchange for sex. Some bosses may threaten to fire the female worker if they report a sexual assault to the justice institutions (Chesney-Lind, 1989. 7). Because of the high number of qualified workers globally, there is significant competition for jobs. Bosses, therefore, may take advantage of this and sexually assault female workers without getting any punishment. In the current world, every person fights only for himself and their interests. The social war has already been waged. Every individual goes for what they want, not caring whether, in so doing, they injure another person. Works may be corrupt just to have the additional cash into their pockets. Those working in the profession of criminal justice sometimes are bribed to give judgements leaning on one side. People get into these actions, such as bribery and stealing, without caring if the deeds are to their advantage or not. It does not matter if an individual gets into a friendly understanding with his neighbour. All opinion differences today are settled by invoking or threatening courts. Some people even take the law into their hands in handling their differences.
The feminists criticize perspectives criminology saying that females and males differ in the crime paths. Therefore, investigations that mainly uses gender as a control variable always fail to clarify the circumstances that predict criminality of female. The main strength of feminist criminology is that they use qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine female criminality. The feminists consider diversity in gender, race, and ethnicity in the study of girls and crime (Chesney-Lind,, 1989, 20). They also consider international and cross-cultural standpoints on females and crime. The feminists always focus on how offenders who are female are always treated the criminal justice institutions. Feminists also consider how girls and women are always victimized. This criminology perspective also focuses on how females working in the criminal justice profession always offer their judgements and rulings.
Terresa’s case can be explained batter by intersectional criminology. Sexual harassment may be mainly due to race or gender discrimination. The boss may have assaulted Terresa and other migrant women sexually because they are an inferior race who came out of Canada. Similarly, he may have sexually assaulted Terresa because she is a woman, and the boss sees women as inferior beings who have no say in anything. Besides, several assault cases in the report can be described by Marxist criminology. Because of the high competition present in the job market, the assaulted women were afraid of reporting to their bosses. They were fearful of losing their jobs. Sometimes the bosses used their power and positions to manipulate justice institutions to give judgements in their favour.
In summary, no criminology theory explains the cause of a crime and how they should be punished. Intersectional, feminist, and Marxist criminology try to describe why individuals may prefer getting into a criminal world. All of them agree that many individuals may get into the criminal world due to poor working conditions and low wages. Intersectional criminology explains that some crimes should be punished as an intersection. This is because they may rise due to crossing of gender or race discrimination.

Bibliography
Brock, D., Glasbeek, A. and Murdocca, C., 2014. Criminalization, Representation, Regulation: Thinking Differently about Crime. University of Toronto Press.
Chesney-Lind, M., 1989. Girls’ crime and woman’s place: Toward a feminist model of female delinquency. Crime & Delinquency, 35(1), pp.5-29.
Harris, K., 2020. “Exploitation, abuse, health hazards rise for migrant workers during COVID-19, group says” CBC News, 8 June, https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/migrant-workers-farm-deaths-report- 1.5602596
MWAC, 2020. “Unheeded Warnings: COVID-19 and Migrant Workers”, The Migrant Worker’s Alliance for Change. https://migrantworkersalliance.org/wp- content/uploads/2020/06/Unheeded-Warnings-COVID19-and-Migrant-Workers.pdf
Potter, H., 2013. Intersectional criminology: Interrogating identity and power in criminological research and theory. Critical Criminology, 21(3), pp.305-318.
Weiler, A., & Cohen, A., 2018. Migrant farm workers vulnerable to sexual violence. The Conversation, May 1. https://theconversation.com/migrant-farm-workers-vulnerable- to-sexual-violence-95839
Weis, V.V., 2017. Marxism and criminology: A history of criminal selectivity. Brill.

Leadership in Criminal Justice

Leadership in Criminal Justice
In the field of criminal justice, leadership is essential.
Name of the Student Institutional Affiliation of the Student Course
Name of the instructor and the date

According to (Schafer, 2009), one of the hurdles to effective leadership is a lack of efficacy on the part of the leader. Efficacy is defined as a leader’s capacity to produce the results that are desired or intended to be produced. Obtaining the required results requires a high level of knowledge and self-assurance in one’s own abilities on the part of the leader. The field of criminal justice is complex, and any leader who want to be effective in their position will need to possess a high level of efficacy. The absence of efficacy among those in charge of criminal justice will result in unintended consequences. As a result, when its leaders’ effectiveness is questioned, the criminal justice system will face difficulties in attempting to achieve its objectives.
According to Yukl (2012), one of the most significant leadership abilities is relationship-oriented behavior, which I believe to be one of the most important. Complex domains involving several parties, such as the criminal justice system, will necessitate the development of strong teamwork by leaders who are people-oriented. One of the reasons why I believe that relationship-oriented behavior is the greatest behavior for a leader is that such leaders place a greater emphasis on assisting their followers. Furthermore, relationship-oriented CEOs motivate and develop their employees, enabling them to meet the objectives of the firm. A leader’s ability to develop positive relationships and communication in an organization is dependent on his or her ability to act in a relational manner.
When it comes to the eight theories of leadership identified by Malos (2012), one theory that I believe to be of limited merit is the situational leadership theory. The situational theory of leadership states that leaders vary between different leadership styles and adapt to them based on the developmental level of their members. The primary goal of a leader who uses different leadership styles based on the level of development of his or her team members is to maintain a sense of equilibrium within the business. The reason why I believe this situation theory has little validity is that a competent leader should constantly strive to better and develop their team members. A leader who adapts to the developmental level of his or her members will not bring about meaningful change within the organization.

References
R. MALO, R. MALO, R. MALO (2012). THE MOST IMPORTANT LEADERSHIP THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDINGS Eftimie Murgu University Resita, Annals of Eftimie Murgu University Resita, Fascicle II, Economic Studies
Schafer, J. A., et al (2009). How to develop effective leadership in law enforcement: the risks, difficulties, and possible solutions Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management is a journal that publishes articles on police strategies and management.
Yukl, G. (2001). (2012). Effective Leadership Behavior: What We Already Know and Which Questions Require Further Exploration The Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 66-85.

Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident

Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident

Student’s Name
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Henry Pratt Company Workplace Violence Incident
Summarize the Henry Pratt Company workplace violence incident
The Henry Pratt Company violence incident involves an employees who shot dead five employees after he was fired. Investigation reports indicate that the employee had threatened to kill people if he got fired. According to the investigation report, he threatened that ‘I’m going to kill every mother f***** in here.’ The employee who heard the threat did not report the incident since he thought Martin was used to making ‘off the wall’ statements (Abe, 2020). The employee brought the weapon to the workplace on the day of the incidence. He shot dead five employees and engaged the police in gunfire when the security officers arrived. The reports indicate that Martin also died in the shootout.
Identify red flags present prior to the shooting
One of the red flags in the incident is that Martin had threatened to kill fellow employees if he got fired. He had received information that he would soon be fired by the company. According to the reports, the employee who heard the threat did not report to the management. The employee thought Martin was not serious of his threats since he was always making other statements that were ‘off the wall.’ The red flag involves the fury of the employee when he received information that he would be fired (Abe, 2020). Another red flag is that the employee had a gun in his car and brought it to the workplace. The surveillance systems did not record him bringing the firearm and the investigators believe he brought it to the workplace when he reported in the morning. Lack of sufficient reporting systems of such threats was a major cause of the incident.
Preventing the Incident
The workplace violence could have been prevented if the red flags had been acted upon. If the employee had reported the threats by Martin, he would have saved the situation. The report would have prevented the incident of shooting (Hemati-Esmaeili et al., 2018). For instance, if the management received the information about the threats, they could have interrogated Martin. The intervention of the police officers would have prevented Martin from bringing the firearm to the workplace (Abe, 2020). The shooting could have been prevented if the company carried out the firing process in a professional manner. Counseling is one of the steps in the firing process since it helps an employee to receive the news and manage the emotions.
Workplace violence prevention program
A workplace violence prevention program is effective in addressing the issues that affect employee safety and welfare. The prevention program would have helped the employees to identify the red flags. For instance, the program would encourage the employees to always report incidences. The reporting system would help the employees to remain safe. Another issue in the program is the vigilance of the management (Arbury et al., 2017). For instance, it is vital to always review the behavior of the employee.
Incidences of shooting have occurred in the past when employees were fired from their workplace. The incidences occur due to the frustrations of the employees. It is vital for the management to provide counseling to the employees during exit. Firing employees triggers emotional disturbance or hopelessness which can affect the behavior of employees (Magnavita et al., 2020). It is vital to provide prior counseling before breaking the news that an employee will be fired.
Important prevention elements in the workplace violence protection program
The element that should be considered in the workplace violence protection program is counseling. Counseling is vital to ensure employees can express their emotions freely. Companies should consider to educate their employees about ways to cope with negative emotions (Magnavita et al., 2020). For instance, employers should prepare employees about being fired. Some companies consider giving a lump sum amount to their employees. The money will help the employees to pay their bills before they can secure another job. The amount will help families will families to continue taking care of them despite being jobless.
The workplace violence protection program should involve engaging the employees by socializing with them to get accurate information about their behavior. Free interaction with the employees will help the management to get the information involving the expectations and frustrations of the employees. Another element is accurate and official communication of the decisions of the employees (Gooch, 2018). The decisions of the employees should be communicated officially in a professional manner. The management should attempt to find out the reaction of an employee upon receiving information that they will be fired.
Topics to address in employee training on workplace violence
The topics to address in the employee training on the workplace violence involves how to report incidences of violence or red flags. The reporting procedures should help the management to always receive timely information. Another topic is how to deal with stress or depression. The counseling sessions should help the employees to cope with stressful events (Gooch, 2018). Other topics include transition from one job to another and how to prepare for the future such as saving and advancing career skills.

References
Abe, K. (2020). Mass Shootings in the US—Why Are they Happening so Often. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 8(2), 70-79.
Arbury, S., Zankowski, D., Lipscomb, J., & Hodgson, M. (2017). Workplace violence training programs for health care workers: an analysis of program elements. Workplace health & safety, 65(6), 266-272.
Gooch, P. (2018). Hospital workplace violence prevention in California: new regulations. Workplace health & safety, 66(3), 115-119.
Hemati-Esmaeili, M., Heshmati-Nabavi, F., Pouresmail, Z., Mazlom, S., & Reihani, H. (2018). Educational and managerial policy making to reduce workplace violence against nurses: an action research study. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 23(6), 478.
Magnavita, N., Heponiemi, T., & Chirico, F. (2020). Workplace Violence Is Associated With Impaired Work Functioning in Nurses: An Italian Cross‐Sectional Study. Journal of nursing scholarship, 52(3), 281-291.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Lawsuit

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Lawsuit
Lawsuit filed against the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Name of the Student Institutional Affiliation of the Student Course
Name of the professor and the date

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Lawsuit
Introduction
The Chicago Meat Authority was found to have discriminated against African-American job applicants in its hiring practices. The Chicago Meat Authority was ordered to pay $1.1 million to the victims in the case EEOC v. Chicago Meat Authority, N.D. Illinois, No. 18-cv-01357, according to the court. The case demonstrates the importance of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in protecting the rights of employees and ensuring fairness and justice. When it comes to increasing the number of African-American employees on the payroll, the CMA should evaluate its policies.
A class action lawsuit filed against Chicago Meat Authority in the Northern District of Illinois (No. 18-cv-01357 complaint) alleges that the company discriminated against African-American workers. The court ordered the authority to compensate the black employees for their discriminating inclinations, which totaled $1.1 million (Dailey, 2021). The organization was accused of denying equal opportunities to black individuals and of firing an employee in retribution for reporting racial harassment to the authorities. An examination by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission revealed that the organization was showing preference to Hispanic employees despite the fact that they worked in a predominantly black neighborhood (Dailey, 2021). African-American employees stated that they were subjected to racial slurs on a regular basis from coworkers and supervisors. Judge John Kness of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois in Chicago reached a settlement in the action, which included $1.1 million in relief for discriminating victims (Dailey, 2021).
The EEOC’s Function
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s (EEOC) role is to advocate for the rights of employees in order to achieve fairness and justice. One of the EEOC’s goals is to eliminate racial discrimination in the workplace and during the employment process (Juban & Gardner, 2020). One of the responsibilities of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is to conduct an unbiased inquiry into charges of discrimination. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) conducted investigations after receiving accusations that the corporation was discriminating against African-Americans who were applying for job openings at the Chicago Meat Authority (CMA). The filing of a lawsuit against a corporation that has been accused of abusing the rights of employees is yet another responsibility (Juban & Gardner, 2020). As demonstrated in the case of the EEOC v. Chicago Meat Authority, Northern District of Illinois, Case No. 18-cv-01357, the EEOC was taking a position against unfair treatment of employees and pursuing justice through financial compensation (Dailey, 2021). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has a role in ensuring that employees are treated fairly during the recruiting process (Zawada, 2018). Following independent study, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission determined that the CMA was harming racial equity in the employment process. It is preferable to hire people based on their skills rather than their ethnic origin when making hiring decisions.
Statement of Purpose
According to the CMA’s website, in order to achieve its purpose, the organization will strive to foster a respectful work environment and culture (CMA, 2021). The creation of a respectful workplace is a statement that the firm recognizes and values the differences among its personnel. The prevalence of racism against African Americans that has occurred for years demonstrates that the managers and senior management team did not put the goal into action. According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the CMA had actively discriminated against African Americans. For example, the use of racial insults by managers and employees is an intentional attempt to denigrate a particular community. In another incident, an employee was fired as a result of his or her refusal to tolerate discrimination. The acts reflect a lack of commitment to establishing a respectful atmosphere that is healthy for all employees from a wide range of cultural and educational backgrounds. Employees who lived in the neighborhood were not afforded the same possibilities as their colleagues elsewhere in the organization. In Chicago, African Americans predominate, and they should be afforded equal opportunity at CMA (CMA, 2021). Lack of fairness in the recruitment process, as well as a disrespectful workplace, may result in legal implications for failing to observe fairness.
Recommendations
Among the recommendations made by the group is that the corporation should review its procedures in order to prevent discriminatory activities from occurring again in the future. One of the most acceptable rules would be for the corporation to set aside a certain number of slots for African-American applicants (Zawada, 2018). The company’s strategy is to expand the number of African American employees on its payroll. Increased diversity within the organization will improve the organization’s ability to accommodate different ethnic groups.
The second recommendation is to educate both employees and management about the dangers of prejudice and how to avoid them. Establishing a platform for employees to learn about the benefits of embracing diversity is critical to the organization’s success. Some manuals on how to embrace diversity should be included in the training program (Zawada, 2018). For example, it is critical to refrain from using racial slurs in conversations. Because of the negative discourse, the unified and friendly environment that the organization should establish to accept various employees may be jeopardized.
As a result of continued discrimination against African Americans in society at large, the CMA has been subjected to discrimination (Juban & Gardner, 2020). For example, the Black Lives Matter movement has been engaged in a long-running struggle for justice over the past several months. The movement accuses the police of racial profiling and discrimination against African-Americans and other minorities.
Conclusion
The Equitable Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has a responsibility to advocate for equal opportunities for all employees. EEO v. CMA is a case filed against the company for allegedly violating equal opportunity and discriminating against African Americans. An examination by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission revealed that the organization was showing preference to Hispanic employees despite the fact that they were working in a predominantly black neighborhood. Increased diversity within the organization will improve the organization’s ability to accommodate different ethnic groups. The firm should make an effort to educate its employees and management on the importance of ethnic diversity in the workplace. Discrimination at the CMA refers to the unjust treatment of individuals as well as ethnic profiling.

References
CMA is an abbreviation for Certified Management Accountant (2021). Chicago Meat Authority, Inc. is a Chicago-based meat distribution company. CMA. Dailey, K., et al., eds., retrieved from https://www.chicagomeat.com/about/ (2021). The EEOC Race Bias Suit against the Chicago Meat Authority has been settled for $1.1 million. Bloomberg Law is a legal news service. https://news.bloomberglaw.com/daily-labor-report/chicago-meat authority ends eeoc race bias suit for-1-1 million.html retrieved from
Juban, R., and Gardner, L. (in press) (2020). Is it better to file or not to file? EEOC Claims and the Economy: How Do They Change? Labor Studies Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 296-318.
B. Zawada is the author of this article (2018). Me Too: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, workplace sexual harassment, and the modern workplace The Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender, and Society, 33 (199).

CJHS/400 Theory And Practice: Human Services In Criminal Justice

CJHS/400 Theory And Practice: Human Services In Criminal Justice
Wk 2 – Behavioral Theory: Behavior Plan
Assignment Content
Use the “Effective Treatment for Addicted Criminal Justice Clients” article as a sample for how to write a behavior plan. The “Case Study” section near the end of the article provides a good example of a behavior plan.
Choose one behavioral theory from your course textbook.
Choose one of the following case studies from the Individual Case Studies:
Case 1: Violet
Case 2: Max
Case 3: Onur

Complete the Behavior Plan Template based on your selected behavioral theory for your selected case-study patient — Violet, Max, or Onur.
Incorporate one peer-reviewed research study as justification for the theory you used in your plan.
Format your plan consistent with APA guidelines.
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Assignment Content for Week 2 of Behavioral Theory
Assemble a behavior plan using the article “Effective Treatment for Addicted Criminal Justice Clients.” The article’s “Case Study” section presents an example of a behavior plan.
Pick one behavioral theory from your text.
Pick one of the Individual Case Studies:
1: Violet
2: Max
3: Onur

Complete the Behavior Plan Template for Violet, Max, or Onur depending on your chosen behavioral theory.
Include one peer-reviewed research paper to support your plan’s hypothesis.
Format your plan using APA style.

CR7L Discussion

CR7L Discussion
For how long did Lilly Ledbetter work at Goodyear? 2. How is it possible for someone to be a victim of pay discrimination and not know it? 3. Why did Lilly Ledbetter sue Goodyear in court? 4. What is the Gender Wage Gap? 5. Did Lilly win her trial? 6. Goodyear appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit. Did Goodyear win on appeal? Explain: 7. Lilly asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review her case. Why did they Supreme Court take the case? 8. What question was the Supreme Court asked to decide? this is the liink for the video https://www.annenbergclassroom.org/resource/call-act-ledbetter-v-goodyear-tire-rubber-co/
How long did Lilly Ledbetter work for Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company? What are the chances that someone is the victim of pay discrimination and is completely unaware of it? 3. What was the reason for Lilly Ledbetter’s legal action against Goodyear? 4. What is the extent of the Gender Wage Gap? 5. Did Lilly come out on top in her trial? 6. Goodyear filed an appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit against the decision. Was Goodyear successful in its appeal? Explain: 7. Lilly petitioned the Supreme Court of the United States for a review of her case. What was the reason for the Supreme Court’s acceptance of the case? 8. What was the question on which the Supreme Court was asked to rule? a link to the video can be found at https://www.annenbergclassroom.org/resource/call act ledbetter v goodyear tire rubber co/

Budget is an essential aspect of any organization

Budget is an essential aspect of any organization.
Introduction
A budget is an important part of every organization’s operations. Keeping track of all of the items that are required for the proper operation of the organization. Budgeting assists the business in allocating cash for certain tasks in order to achieve the established goals. However, depending on the demands of an organization, there are two forms of budgeting to choose from. The reason for this will depend on whether the organization is public or private, and the goal of each group will be different.
Budget disparities between corporate and public sectors
Profit maximization is the goal of private budgeting. That is the primary goal for which the firm might make investments in a variety of sectors in order to boost profit gains in a relatively short period of time. The public budget, on the other hand, does not address the requirement for profit gain. A public budget is intended to develop things such as infrastructure, schools, and even hospitals in order to raise the living conditions of the people in a certain region’s population.
It will be necessary for private budgeting to create income from a future business, which is intended to maximize profit received while minimizing overall expenditure for an organization’s efficient operation. The need of an organization determines the scope of public budgeting. The revenue tax collected from every individual within an area, or even across the entire country, is used to pay the budget’s operations.
There are several different types of criminal justice agencies.
There are various sorts of criminal justice agencies, each of which is distinguished by the type of organization. For a public organization, the local police department is responsible for ensuring that income is collected within the bounds of the region in which the organization works and the boundaries within which the organization has jurisdiction. In the private sector, private contractors assist in the maintenance of the law and the prevention of external and even domestic dangers, which may cause harm to various tools within the organization and so impair the efficient operation of the organization. The criminal justice agencies are responsible for providing the organization with sufficient security to allow for effective budgeting.

The judgment by the essay mills can be tested on ordinary standards

The judgment by the essay mills can be tested on ordinary standards of reasonable according to R v Ghosh’s 1982 definition of reasonable and honest[1]. Prooving dishonesty has been an issue in most courts. The dishonesty test from the recent decision provided in Ivey v Genting Casinos [2017] UKSC 67 has been used to prove dishonesty in fraud cases. In essay mills, proving dishonest can be conducted through the R V. Gosh concept to determine students’ fault in purchasing essays from essay mills. The Gosh tests provide whether, according to reasonable and honest people, the action was dishonest. Making decisions concerning dishonesty has been challenging, where courts have been making bias judgments to balance between the objective test and the subjective knowledge of both the essay mills and the student. The Gosh test is applied in determining whether the essay mills are genuine in selling assignements to students or the main objective is solicit or steal from
students.

[1] R v Ghosh 1982

The judgment of the essay mills can be examined against common norms of reasonableness, as defined by R. V. Ghosh in 1982 in his definition of reasonableness and honesty[1]. In most courts, proving dishonesty has been a difficult task. The dishonesty test from the recent decision in Ivey v Genting Casinos [2017] UKSC 67 has been applied to fraud cases in order to establish dishonesty on the part of the defendant. Essay mills can use the R V. Gosh notion to prove dishonesty, which can then be used to establish whether or not students were at fault for purchasing essays from essay mills. The Gosh criteria determine whether an activity was dishonest in the eyes of reasonable and honest individuals. Making conclusions about dishonesty has proven to be difficult, with courts having to make bias assessments in order to strike a balance between the objective test and the subjective knowledge of both the essay mills and the student in some instances. The Gosh test is used to determine whether essay mills are legitimate in their efforts to sell assignments to students or if their primary goal is to solicit or steal from students.

[1] R. V. Ghosh v. Union of India, 1982

Criminology essay

1) Critical Thinking Exercise: Classical Criminology Research – The Classical School of criminology has had a tremendous impact on criminal justice, the rejection of extreme tortures, and criminological thought. Review the concepts of the Classical School of thought. Outline the eight basic principles of classical thought. What are the four policy implications of the Classical School? Do you think the death penalty fits with the Classical School of thought? Why or why not? Do you think offenders freely choose to commit crimes or are they pushed and pulled into it?

2) Critical Thinking Exercise: Neoclassical Criminology Compare/Contrast -Review the Neoclassical perspective and outline the differences and similarities between the Classical and Neoclassical Schools. How did each school view criminal intent?

3) Critical Thinking Exercise: Classical School Policies Research- Summarize the Classical School policy on the rational punishment responses of three-strikes laws, determinate sentencing, and the death penalty. Be sure to include in your discussion how each of these punishment responses fits with the classical perspective. Which strategy do you think is most effective in today’s criminal justice system? Which do you think seems most rational?

1) Classical Criminology Research Critical Thinking Exercise – Criminal justice, the rejection of harsh tortures, and criminological philosophy have all benefited greatly from the Classical School of criminology. Review the Classical School of thought’s concepts. Outline the eight pillars of ancient philosophy. What are the Classical School’s four policy implications? Do you believe the death penalty is compatible with Classical thought? Why do you think that is? Do you believe offenders choose to conduct crimes on their own or are they coerced into it?

2) Neoclassical Criminology Critical Thinking Exercise Compare/Contrast -Review the Neoclassical perspective and outline the differences and similarities between the Classical and Neoclassical Schools. How did each school view criminal intent?

3) Critical Thinking Exercise: Classical School