“Research methodology chapter draft 2,000 words
The research carried out included the following;
* 9 semi-structured interviews with interview schedule (qualitative data analysis)
* Recorded and transcribed – pseudonyms used.
* Consent and ethics in line with data protection – confidential
* Thematic analysis carried out
Please include up-to-date references with regards to research methods showing research methods in psychology
* APA referencing.
* Third person passive style.
What this means is that I need a generic essay for Research Methods to show that 9 semi-structured interviews were carried out (DO NOT CHOOSE A TOPIC!) Just reference the academic methodology for carrying out qualitative research in this way and consider the ethical implications of consent and confidentially etc.. (and reference)
A thematic analysis was also carried out (as specified in original brief) so a paragraph or two referencing the research methods for thematic analysis and coding interview transcripts etc..
Essentially, I’m asking for a general research methods overview with references for the conducting of interviews, as with all research methods essays, it might include things like, reasons why it’s useful to carry out interviews (benefits) (referenced) and dangers of interviews (things to be aware of etc..)
Just a generic research methods essay for carrying out qualitative research and interview ethics, and doing a thematic analysis etc..
The methodology of research shows how the researcher intends to carry out his/her research. A customer loyalty card is essential for the successful establishment of a company. It increases customer satisfaction, thereby increasing the likelihood of repeat business. The purpose of this study is to determine the importance of providing customers with customer loyalty cards in order to compete against stiff competition in the area. The majority of the data was gathered through structured interviews and the administration of questionnaires, among other methods. The enhancement of the customer loyalty card ensures that a customer will return to a particular company or shop. The purpose of this proposal is to determine whether implementing a customer loyalty card system will facilitate the attraction of more customers to a business. One of the parameters being tested is a naming contest in which the general public is invited to vote for their favorite name. Another perimeter will be a taste test, where customers will be able to sample various featured house drinks on the sidewalk outside the future storefront in conjunction with the signing up for a loyalty card. In addition to voting on their favorite drink, the public will have the opportunity to assist in the selection of what will become the house signature drink through their votes. These factors will be considered in conjunction with the possibility of implementing a customer loyalty program. The outcome of the study will determine whether or not the system can be implemented in coffee shops.
Customer satisfaction; customer loyalty; customer loyalty card are some of the terms used in this article.
Summary of the Report
The research is being carried out by Origami Coffee, which is a locally owned coffeehouse. Because there are several coffee shops in the area, Origami Coffee may face competition from these establishments. The strategy of Origami Coffee is to provide its customers with loyalty cards in order to attract them to the shop, thereby overcoming the stiff competition. When customers make purchases, a hole is punched in the customer loyalty work and the work is returned to the company. Certain discounts or offers are made available to customers who have certain holes punched in their loyalty cards. Clients are encouraged to return to the company several times in order to receive the offer as a result of this practice. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether providing customers with a loyalty card (punch or virtual) will assist them in attracting more business to their establishment in the future. Primary data will be collected through a structured interview and analyzed statistically in order to determine correlations between the variables under consideration.
Review of the Literature
A customer loyalty card is essential for the successful establishment of a company. It increases customer satisfaction, thereby increasing the likelihood of repeat business. Numerous studies have been conducted in order to determine the significance of providing customers with loyalty cards. According to Magi (2003), many grocery consumers have a primary store where they make the majority of their purchases. It indicates that customers have preferences based on their level of satisfaction. According to the findings of the study, implementing a customer loyalty card program in a new coffee shop would increase customer loyalty while also attracting more customers to the establishment. Customer loyalty and satisfaction can be increased by providing incentives for shopping, such as increasing customer shares or offering discounts.
One advantage of semi-structured interview is that it enhances two- way communication. The interviewer asks open ended questions giving the respondents opportunity to answer to the best of their knowledge. The interview appears interested in the conversation giving the respondents morale and encourages them to keep talking. Semi-structured interview does not restrict the interviewer in the type of questions to be asked. Similarly, it does not limit the interviewer on the format of asking questions. This kind of interview allow the researcher to dig deeper by asking relevant questions therefore obtaining more reliable information they need. similarly, SSI gives the respondent opportunity to open up about sensitive information and issues (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015). The interviewers, in turn, are provided with the opportunity to learn answers to questions they are asking and the reasons behind the answers. This is achieved by prompting interviewees to elaborate or to expand on their answers. Semi-structured interview provides reliable, qualitative information to compare to the future and previous information. Finally, interviewers are given the opportunity to prepare questions before the actual interview which assists in guiding the discussion and keeping interviewees on topic.
Even though semi-structured interview is a suitable way to explore deeper into a subject, this interview methodology type has some limitations. Semi-structured interviews are labor intensive, time consuming, and need interviewer complexity. Interviewers are required to be nimble, poised, sensitive, and smart, as well as conversant with the relevant subject. It is difficult and time consuming to prepare, set up, conduct, and analyze semi-structured interviews. It requires much effort to do all these processes right. The interview involves the laborious job of examining large volumes of notes and sometimes several transcription hours (McIntosh & Morse, 2015). Anther limitation of SSIs is that without immense lay out of personnel and time, these types of interviews are unlikely to include samples large enough to produce precision of minus or plus percent variety. This occurs in the interviews of the members of a large group. Subsequently, for many reasons, a regulated survey of 600 respondents would be advanced to trying 600 one-hour semi-structured interviews. For some other reasons, for focus groups containing ten respondents may be much easier and more effective than carrying out a forty respondent semi-structured interview. Therefore, the interview needs to interview considerable number of people in to draw conclusions and make comparison. Similarly, it is very difficult to find an interviewer with the needed training and understanding to conduct the interview. Through early preparation of the questions to be asked, the interview can be biased.
Recording and Transcription in Semi-Structured Interviews
Basically, the researcher has questions in a paper that he or she follows to guide the interview. Because this type of interview frequently comprises open-ended questions and discussions, the conversation may deviate from the guide of the interviewer. It is therefore recommended to tape-record these open-ended interviews and transcript them later for analysis. Even though sometimes the interviewers may try to jot nots to obtain the answers of the interviewee, it is challenging to concentrate on jotting notes and conducting interview at the same time (Galletta, 2013). This style will lead to poor notes and also diminish rapport development between the respondent and interviewer. Dialogue and rapport development is vital in semi-structured interviews. Therefore, tape recording will ensure smooth flow of the conversation.
Ethical Considerations in Semi-Structured Interviews
Semi-structured interviews allow for free interaction and communication between the interviewer and respondent, in which they are allowed to communicate and express their thoughts and feelings to a certain degree. The interviewer, therefore, to pay close attention to cultural dimensions and intercultural competence during interaction and communication (Johnson & Rowlands, 2012). The competence of interculture need individuals to identify and respect the variety of various cultural backgrounds. Individuals with considerable levels of intercultural know-how always respect the variation of individuals and different patterns of the culture. They always have self-evaluation and they always understand difference between individuals. They often make their assessments and conclusions based on the dependable evidence. The interviews must assess their attitudes, believes, values, and personal biases to enhance their understanding about other people’s cultures. They must understand that their personal biases and beliefs may affect the manner in which they address or ask questions, and consequently, impact the result of semi-structured interviews (Wilson, Onwuegbuzie, & Manning, 2016). The researchers must also recognize cultural dimensions. Improper recognition of cultural dimensions may result to unpleasant outcomes and miscommunication during the process of interview. Having a high degree of cultural dimensions can be portrayed as respecting individualistic, masculine, uncertainty aversion of cultures.
Furthermore, the interviewers must respect the confidentiality and privacy of the respondents. Interviewers can sometimes dig into respondent personal areas which they did not anticipate. There is a danger for the researcher to focus on the sensational phenomena to study. Furthermore, the interviewer should avoid asking questions concerning family relationships. Here, the interviewer threaten privacy when they investigate issues the interviewer prefers to keep secret (Wilson, Onwuegbuzie, & Manning, 2016). The interview also threaten confidentiality by revealing details of the couple that were secret. Besides, the interview should not bring out issues that are sensitive to the interviewee. This may bring emotional intense to both the interviewer and respondent.
The interviewees must be provided with the informed consent prior to the commencement of the interview. The issues of confidentiality and privacy must be clearly stated in the consent. It is necessary for the respondents to know and understand the confidentiality and privacy rules before agreeing to the interview (Knaust, 2012). In some cases, the interviewers provide a process or continuous consent in which the researcher reiterate consent in the entire process of the research. The consent is important as it assures the interviewee of the confidentiality and privacy of the interview.
The main reason for embracing thematic analysis is because it aims at validation to achieve an essential view of the analysis. The validation helps the interviewer with the sequence and details of how raw information could be applied (Clarke, V., & Braun, 2014). It is mainly employed if the information is gathered based on observation depend on the attitude, visions, and feeling of the respondent. Thematic analysis is particularly suitable if the when the objective of the investigator is to test the information to find general thoughts and themes from multiple participants. The researcher allocates a narrative to the various information to acquire a distinct understanding of the thoughts of participant to express their experience.
Furthermore, the theme should portray the bulk of the information to present data when Thematic analysis is employed. Put differently, a large amount of data is needed because, whereas one statement is important, it does not portray the exact story. This is correct when the objective of the researcher is to get understanding and find the correlation between different information obtained from various groups of participants. Therefore, the researcher is required to describe and provide a large amount of information. Thematic analysis offers detailed, complex, and rich information that is compatible with the image. According to Blacker (2009), a rich description of the whole data would the reader to get the meaning of the important and predominant themes.
In a nutshell, the methodology of a research shows the procedure in which the study will follow. One of the methods for data collection is through semi-structured interview. This is where the interviewer is not restricted to the format or the type of information to be asked. The researcher involves themselves in a complex two-way communication with the respondent to obtain the reliable information. While carrying out a semi-structured interview, the interviewer must consider all the ethical issues. They must consider all the cultural dominions and intercultural competences. Similarly, the confidentiality and privacy of the respondent must be put into consideration.
Blacker, R. 2009. A thematic analysis of psychodynamically-oriented supervision of observations in an acute inpatient ward. Published thesis. University of Leicester.
Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2014). Thematic analysis. In Encyclopedia of critical psychology (pp. 1947-1952). Springer, New York, NY.
Galletta, A. M. 2013. Mastering the Semi-Structured Interview and Beyond. New York: NYU Press,
Johnson, J. M., & Rowlands, T. (2012). The interpersonal dynamics of in-depth interviewing. The SAGE handbook of interview research: The complexity of the craft, 99-113.
Knaust, D. (2012). Methodology and techniques. In Developments in Sedimentology (Vol. 64, pp. 245-271). Elsevier.
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